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 HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH

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Commandeur Adama
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Date d'inscription : 16/02/2007

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MessageSujet: HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH   Dim 27 Jan - 3:38

Fayette
6 April 1830Church was organized
11 April 1830First public discourse
9 June 1830First conference
26 Sept. 1830Second conference
Colesville
Late April 1830First miracle
26–28 June 1830Baptisms and persecution
28 June 1830Joseph Smith was arrested
Harmony
June 1830Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible was begun
Aug. 1830Revelation on sacrament
Late Aug. 1830Joseph Smith left Harmony for the last time
Manchester Area
April, June 1830Samuel Smith labored as a missionary
July 1830Joseph Smith, Sr., and Don Carlos Smith left to do missionary work
1 Sept. 1830Parley P. Pratt was baptized
The date of 6 April 1830 is significant to Latter-day Saints. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was organized on that day. The organization of the Church climaxed a decade of preparation for the Prophet Joseph Smith, as Elder Gordon B. Hinckley pointed out:
“This day of organization was, in effect, a day of commencement, the graduation for Joseph from ten years of remarkable schooling. It had begun with the incomparable vision in the grove in the spring of 1820, when the Father and the Son appeared to the fourteen-year-old boy. It had continued with the tutoring from Moroni, with both warnings and instructions given on multiple occasions. Then there was the translation of the ancient record, and the inspiration, the knowledge, the revelation that came from that experience. There was the bestowal of divine authority, the ancient priesthood again conferred upon men by those who were its rightful possessors—John the Baptist in the case of the Aaronic Priesthood, and Peter, James, and John in the case of the Melchizedek. There were revelations, a number of them, in which the voice of God was heard again, and the channel of communication opened between man and the Creator. All of these were preliminary to that historic April 6.”1
A Day to Be Remembered


Shortly after Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery received the priesthood from heavenly messengers in 1829, they were shown in revelation “the precise day upon which, according to [God’s] will and commandment, we should proceed to organize his church once again, here upon the earth.”2 Peter Whitmer, Sr., offered the use of his home for the organization meeting that was scheduled for Tuesday, 6 April, according to the revelation. At the appointed hour, close to sixty people assembled to witness the formal organization of the Church of Jesus Christ. Approximately twenty of these people had come from Colesville, a distance of approximately one hundred miles, to participate in the events of this sacred occasion.3
The meeting was simple. Joseph Smith, then twenty-four years old, called the group to order and designated five associates—Oliver Cowdery, Hyrum Smith, Peter Whitmer, Jr., Samuel H. Smith, and David Whitmer—to join him to meet New York’s legal requirements for incorporating a religious society.4 After kneeling in solemn prayer, Joseph asked those present if they were willing to accept him and Oliver as their teachers and spiritual advisers. Everyone raised their hands in the affirmative. Although they had previously received the Melchizedek Priesthood, Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery then ordained each other to the office of elder. They did this to signify that they were elders in the newly organized church. The sacrament of the Lord’s supper was administered next. The prayers used had been received through revelation (see D&C 20:75–79). Joseph and Oliver then confirmed those who had previously been baptized as members of the Church of Jesus Christ and bestowed upon them the gift of the Holy Ghost.
The reconstructed log home of Peter Whitmer in Fayette township, New York. Many important events took place in the Whitmer home: the testimony of the Three Witnesses was signed here, the Book of Mormon translation was completed here, the Church was organized here, and the Doctrine and Covenants records twenty revelations that were received here.

In a revelation received on this historic day, Joseph was designated “a seer, a translator, a prophet, an apostle of Jesus Christ” (D&C 21:1). The Lord instructed members of the infant Church to receive Joseph’s word “as if from mine own mouth, in all patience and faith” (D&C 21:5).
The organization of the Church of Jesus Christ was an unforgettable occasion for those present. Joseph reported that “after a happy time spent in witnessing and feeling for ourselves the powers and blessings of the Holy Ghost, through the grace of God bestowed upon us, we dismissed with the pleasing knowledge that we were now individually members of, and acknowledged of God, ‘The Church of Jesus Christ,’ organized in accordance with commandments and revelations given by Him to ourselves in these last days, as well as according to the order of the Church as recorded in the New Testament.”5 Joseph also took opportunity to teach the Saints and bear his own testimony. Several individuals were baptized on that eventful day, including Orrin Porter Rockwell, Martin Harris, and Joseph Smith’s parents. It was a time of joy and happiness in the life of the Prophet, who exclaimed, “Praise to my God! that I lived to see my own father baptized into the true Church of Jesus Christ!”6
On Sunday, 11 April, Oliver Cowdery delivered the Church’s first public discourse in the Whitmers’ Fayette home. Many people attended, and that day six people were baptized. A week later seven more joined. Joseph Smith also received a revelation answering the question of the necessity of being baptized again when an individual has previously been baptized in another church. The answer was: “Although a man should be baptized an hundred times it availeth him nothing, for you cannot enter in at the strait gate by the law of Moses, neither by your dead works” (D&C 22:2). The Lord affirmed that authority was essential to perform a valid baptism. The Church, then as now, provided all sincere believers in Christ and his gospel the organizational structure for receiving the saving ordinances, enjoying fellowship with other believers, being taught more perfectly in the principles of the gospel, and assisting in the saving of others.
The Prophet’s Ministry in Colesville


Later in April, Joseph Smith visited Joseph Knight, Sr., in Colesville. Joseph related, “Mr. Knight and his family . . . were willing to reason with me upon my religious views, and were, as usual, friendly and hospitable. We held several meetings in the neighborhood; we had many friends, and some enemies. Our meetings were well attended, and many began to pray fervently to Almighty God, that He would give them wisdom to understand the truth.”7
One of the people who regularly attended the meetings was Newel Knight, a close friend of the Prophet. Newel Knight was afraid to pray, but he finally accepted the persuasive challenge of the Prophet to do so in the next meeting. When the moment arrived, Newel declined, promising that he would pray later in private. The next morning he went into the woods where he tried to pray, but he failed because he felt guilty for refusing to pray publicly. The Prophet said that Newel “began to feel uneasy, and continued to feel worse both in mind and body, until, upon reaching his own house, his appearance was such as to alarm his wife very much. He requested her to go and bring me to him. I went and found him suffering very much in his mind, and his body acted upon in a very strange manner; his visage and limbs distorted and twisted in every shape and appearance possible to imagine; and finally he was caught up off the floor of the apartment [room], and tossed about most fearfully.”8
Neighbors and relatives gathered to see what was happening. Joseph finally caught hold of Newel’s hand. Newel said he knew he was possessed of the devil and he also knew that Joseph had the power to cast him out. Acting on Newel’s faith as well as his own, Joseph commanded the devil to depart in the name of Jesus Christ. “Immediately Newel spoke out and said that he saw the devil leave him and vanish from his sight. This was the first miracle which was done in the Church . . . , and it was done not by man, nor by the power of man, but it was done by God, and by the power of godliness.”9 Newel Knight’s facial expressions returned to normal, and his body relaxed.
“The Spirit of the Lord descended upon him [Newel], and the visions of eternity were opened to his view.” In his weakened condition he was placed on his bed, but he said he felt himself “attracted upward, and remained for some time enwrapt in contemplation, insomuch that I knew not what was going on in the room.” In this state his body was elevated until he touched the ceiling.10
Many of the people who saw these events were convinced of the power of God and later joined the Church. Joseph soon returned to Fayette. A few weeks later, Newel Knight came to Fayette and was baptized by David Whitmer.
First Conference of the Church


By June 1830 the Saints in New York were located primarily in Manchester, Fayette, and Colesville. The membership of the Church at this point was about thirty people. Following revealed instructions (see D&C 20:75), the Prophet called them together for the first conference of the Church on 9 June, at Fayette. Many people attended who already believed or were eager to learn. Those assembled partook of the sacrament, and several recent converts were confirmed. Samuel H. Smith was ordained an elder, and Joseph Smith, Sr., and Hyrum were ordained priests. Ten brethren received “licenses,” which were small documents certifying they were authorized to represent the Church (see D&C 20:64–65). Oliver Cowdery kept the minutes of this meeting and was appointed by the conference to keep the official Church records.
The three centers of the Church in New York in June of 1830: (1) Manchester township, (2) Fayette township, and (3) the Colesville area
[click for scalable version]

Joseph Smith read to the congregation the “Articles and Covenants of the Church of Christ” (most of sections 20 and 22 of the Doctrine and Covenants), which contain significant instructions pertaining to the order of the Church.11
Joseph Smith wrote, “Much exhortation and instruction was given, and the Holy Ghost was poured out upon us in a miraculous manner—many of our number prophesied, whilst others had the heavens opened to their view.” Newel Knight was filled with unspeakable love and peace. He saw a vision of the Savior and learned that he would someday be admitted into the presence of the Lord.
“Such scenes as these were calculated to inspire our hearts with joy unspeakable, and fill us with awe and reverence for that Almighty Being. . . . To find ourselves engaged in the very same order of things as observed by the holy Apostles of old; to realize the importance and solemnity of such proceedings; and to witness and feel with our own natural senses, the like glorious manifestations of the powers of the Priesthood, the gifts and blessings of the Holy Ghost, and the goodness and condescension of a merciful God unto such as obey the everlasting Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ, combined to create within us sensations of rapturous gratitude, and inspire us with fresh zeal and energy in the cause of truth.”12
Joseph Smith, Sr., certificate of ordination as a priest signed by Joseph Smith, Jr., and Oliver Cowdery.

_________________


Et veillez à avoir la foi, l'espérance et la charité; alors vous abonderez toujours en bonnes oeuvres. En souvenir des Néphites qui présidaient aux cérémonies initiatiques dans la forêt de Zarahemla et qui en fut le secret... DAT ROSA MEL APIBUS
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MessageSujet: Re: HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH   Dim 27 Jan - 3:39

Shortly after this conference twelve people were baptized in Seneca Lake by David Whitmer. They included Joseph Smith’s sister Katherine and his brothers William and Don Carlos.
Tribulation and Joy in Colesville


Immediately after the conference, Joseph Smith returned to his home in Harmony, Pennsylvania. In the latter part of June 1830, the Prophet, accompanied by his wife, Oliver Cowdery, and John and David Whitmer, visited the Knight family in Colesville, New York. Joseph Knight, Sr., who had read the Book of Mormon and was satisfied it was true, and a number of others in the area desired baptism. On Saturday, 26 June, the brethren dammed a stream to make a pond suitable for baptisms. That night a mob, incited by leaders of some area churches who feared losing members, demolished the dam. On Sunday the brethren proceeded with the meeting. The Prophet related, “Oliver Cowdery preached, and others of us bore testimony to the truth of the Book of Mormon, the doctrine of repentance, baptism for the remission of sins, and laying on of hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost.”13 Some members of the mob attended the meeting and afterward harassed those in attendance.
Early the next day, 28 June, the brethren repaired the dam and held the baptismal service. Thirteen people were baptized, including Emma Smith. Many neighbors mocked them, asking if they “had been washing sheep.”14 Quietly the Saints returned to Joseph Knight’s residence and then to the home of Newel Knight, but their enemies followed them hurling insults and threatening to harm the new converts. A meeting was to be held that evening to confirm those who had been baptized, but before it could begin, Joseph Smith was arrested and taken to South Bainbridge in Chenango County for trial as a “disorderly person.” Mobs tried to intercept Joseph and the constable, but the officer succeeded in protecting the Prophet.
Joseph Knight, Sr., arranged for two neighbors, James Davidson and John Reid, “men renowned for their integrity,” to defend Joseph Smith in court the next day. The circulation of “scandalous falsehoods” about the Prophet attracted many boisterous spectators to the trial. Nevertheless, the testimonies of Josiah Stowell and two of his daughters were instrumental in achieving Joseph’s acquittal. But the trial was no sooner over than a constable from Broome County arrested him again on the same charge.15
Joseph reported: “The constable who served this second warrant upon me had no sooner arrested me than he began to abuse and insult me; and so unfeeling was he with me, that although I had been kept all the day in court without anything to eat since the morning, yet he hurried me off to Broome county, a distance of about fifteen miles, before he allowed me any kind of food whatever. He took me to a tavern, and gathered in a number of men, who used every means to abuse, ridicule and insult me. They spit upon me, pointed their fingers at me, saying, ‘Prophesy, prophesy!’ and thus did they imitate those who crucified the Savior of mankind, not knowing what they did.”
In the trial the next morning, many bore false witness against the Prophet, often contradicting themselves. When Newel Knight took the stand, Mr. Seymour, a prosecutor who was anxious to defy Mormonism, questioned Newel about the incident of the devil being cast out of him:
“‘And had not Joe Smith some hand in its being done?’
“‘Yes, sir.’
“‘And did not he cast him out of you?’
“‘No, sir; it was done by the power of God, and Joseph Smith was the instrument in the hands of God, on the occasion. He commanded him to come out of me in the name of Jesus Christ.’
“‘And are you sure that it was the devil?’
“‘Yes, sir.’
“‘Did you see him after he was cast out of you?’
“‘Yes, sir! I saw him.’
“‘Pray, what did he look like?’
“. . . The witness replied:
“‘I believe I need not answer your last question, but I will do it, provided I be allowed to ask you one question first, and you answer me, viz., Do you, Mr. Seymour, understand the things of the spirit?’
“‘No,’ answered Mr. Seymour, ‘I do not pretend to such big things.’
“‘Well, then,’ replied Knight, ‘it would be of no use to tell you what the devil looked like, for it was a spiritual sight, and spiritually discerned; and of course you would not understand it were I to tell you of it.’
“The lawyer dropped his head, whilst the loud laugh of the audience proclaimed his discomfiture. . . .
“. . . These men [James Davidson and John Reid], although not regular lawyers, were upon this occasion able to put to silence their opponents, and convince the court that I was innocent. They spoke like men inspired of God.”16 The Prophet was again acquitted, but mobs harassed him until he found safety at his wife’s sister’s house and later at his home in Harmony.
A few days later Joseph Smith returned to Colesville with Oliver Cowdery to confirm those who had been baptized; they had just arrived when a mob began to gather. They thought it best to leave, without even taking time to rest. Joseph and Oliver barely escaped the mob that pursued them throughout the night. Joseph said, “Thus were we persecuted on account of our religious faith—in a country the Constitution of which guarantees to every man the indefeasible right to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience—and by men, too, who were professors of religion, and who were not backward to maintain the right of religious liberty for themselves, though they could thus wantonly deny it to us.”17
Meanwhile the Saints in Colesville prayed that Joseph and Oliver would again come to visit them. The Prophet’s return to Colesville in early August involved a miracle. Because hostile feelings persisted, Joseph and Hyrum Smith and John and David Whitmer prayed mightily before their journey, and as Newel Knight declared, “their prayers were not in vain. A little distance from my house they encountered a large company of men at work upon the public road, amongst whom were some of our most bitter enemies who looked earnestly at the brethren but not knowing them, the brethren passed on unmolested.”18 The confirmations that followed and the partaking of the sacrament together was a joyful interlude between troubles.
Throughout these tribulations, the Lord sustained the Prophet and revealed fundamental truths of Latter-day Saint theology and practice. Among these truths were the “visions of Moses,” comprising chapter 1 of the book of Moses in the Pearl of Great Price, which set forth the nature and extent of God’s work (see Moses 1:33, 39) and exposed Satan as the source of opposition to righteousness. Throughout the summer Joseph studied the book of Genesis in the Old Testament. This study formed the basis for the book of Moses and much of his “inspired translation” of the Bible, which is now known as the Joseph Smith Translation.19
Other revelations were received during July telling Joseph to be patient in his afflictions and instructing him to continue in prayer and “in writing the things which shall be given thee by the Comforter, and expounding all scriptures unto the church. . . .
“For thou shalt devote all thy service in Zion; and in this thou shalt have strength. . . .
“And in temporal affairs thou shalt not have strength” (D&C 24:5, 7, 9). Joseph’s calling was as a prophet; he was not to be directly concerned about providing for his own temporal needs. This was not an easy sacrifice for him or his family. He was also counseled to let his “time be devoted to the studying of the scriptures [an allusion to his inspired translation of the Bible], and to preaching, and to confirming the church at Colesville, and to performing your labors on the land, such as is required, until after you shall go to the west to hold the next conference; and then it shall be made known what you shall do” (D&C 26:1). This conference would take place in September in Fayette.
In July, Joseph received a revelation for his wife, Emma (see D&C 25). She was designated “an elect lady” (v. 3) and comforted in her afflictions. She was also directed to compile the first hymnbook for the Church. The hymns she compiled, and others written since that time, represent an important expression of faith for the Latter-day Saints. Speaking of the importance of music in our dispensation, the Lord said, “my soul delighteth in the song of the heart; yea, the song of the righteous is a prayer unto me, and it shall be answered with a blessing upon their heads” (v. 12).
When the Prophet returned to Harmony in August, he received an important revelation concerning sacramental emblems. Newel Knight and his wife, Sally, had gone to Harmony to visit Joseph and Emma. Neither of the women had been confirmed members of the Church because of disruption by the mob, so the two couples, together with John Whitmer, decided to attend to this ordinance and to partake of the sacrament. Joseph went to “procure some wine for the occasion, but had gone only a short distance when [he] was met by a heavenly messenger.” The angel told him that it did not matter what was eaten or drunk in the sacrament as long as the ordinance was performed with an eye single to the glory of God. Joseph was also warned not to purchase wine from enemies (see D&C 27:2–4). In obedience to this charge, the small group used “some wine of [their] own making” and held a meeting. They “spent the evening in a glorious manner. The Spirit of the Lord was poured out upon [them].”20
Early Missionary Labors and Conversions


While these events transpired in Colesville and Harmony during the summer of 1830, missionary work was also underway in other parts of New York State. People had shared the gospel with family, friends, and neighbors even before the Church was organized. More than one aspiring missionary had been told through revelation: “Behold, the field is white already to harvest; therefore, whoso desireth to reap, let him thrust in his sickle with his might, and reap while the day lasts, that he may treasure up for his soul everlasting salvation in the kingdom of God” (D&C 6:3; see also 4:4; 11:3; 12:3; 14:3).
Once printing of the Book of Mormon started, public interest in Joseph Smith and Mormonism increased. Rumors flourished about the gold book being printed in Palmyra. One man who heard the rumors was Thomas B. Marsh of Boston, who later became the first president of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. His curiosity led him to Grandin’s print shop; there he met Martin Harris, who gave him proof sheets of the first sixteen printed pages of the Book of Mormon and then accompanied him to the Smith home in Manchester. Oliver Cowdery spent portions of two days telling him about Joseph and the Restoration. Thomas returned to Massachusetts and taught his family about the new work. When he heard the Church had been organized, he moved his family to Palmyra. In September 1830 he was baptized and called on a mission (see D&C 31).
Samuel H. Smith, the Prophet’s younger brother, was ordained an elder at the first conference of the Church on 9 June 1830 and was soon taking summer trips into neighboring counties, alone or with his parents, to sell the Book of Mormon. He was often discouraged because his efforts were for the most part rejected. He did, however, leave one copy of the Book of Mormon with a Reverend John P. Greene, who, although not interested in reading it himself, said he would ask his parishioners whether they would like to buy a copy. Three weeks later Samuel went again to see Reverend Greene, but he had not returned from his circuit tour. His wife, Rhoda, said that the book had not sold but that she had read the book and liked it. Samuel left the book with her, and later her husband read it and was converted.
Brigham Young and his brother Phineas. John P. Greene and Phineas Young joined the Church as a result of Samuel Smith’s missionary labors. Samuel was also indirectly responsible for the conversion of Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball through the copy of the Book of Mormon given to Phineas Young.
Phineas Young, a brother of Rhoda Young Greene, had bought a copy of the Book of Mormon from Samuel earlier in April 1830 when he met Samuel returning from Lima, New York, where he had been preaching. He gave the Book of Mormon to Brigham Young, who gave it to his sister, Fanny Young Murray, the mother-in-law of Heber C. Kimball. After intense study these men and their families were baptized into the Church. Brigham Young spent two years in study and comparison before he was baptized in April 1832. Hence, Samuel Smith’s early missionary labors resulted in some of the most influential converts of the early Church. He was a dedicated missionary who labored in New York, New England, Ohio, and Missouri converting scores of people and organizing several branches of the Church.
Asael Smith’s family, showing subsequent leaders of the Church

_________________


Et veillez à avoir la foi, l'espérance et la charité; alors vous abonderez toujours en bonnes oeuvres. En souvenir des Néphites qui présidaient aux cérémonies initiatiques dans la forêt de Zarahemla et qui en fut le secret... DAT ROSA MEL APIBUS
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http://koloborder.blog4ever.com/blog/index-18187.html
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Age : 52
Localisation : Pays de Néphi - Mormon forest
Date d'inscription : 16/02/2007

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MessageSujet: Re: HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH   Dim 27 Jan - 3:40

Joseph Smith, Sr., also thrust his sickle into “ripe fields” that first summer. With his fourteen-year-old son, Don Carlos, he preached to his father’s family in St. Lawrence County, and his message was received with joy. Asael’s son John, brother of Joseph, Sr., also accepted the gospel, as did John’s son George A. Smith, who later became one of the twelve Apostles. Thus, three generations were united in the faith of the Restoration.
Parley P. Pratt (1807–57), converted through the Book of Mormon, became one of the Church’s leading theologians and a member of the first Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. He was assassinated in Arkansas in 1857.
Twenty-three-year-old Parley P. Pratt was another New York convert that summer. Parley had settled in the wilderness of northeastern Ohio, and there he joined a group of restorationists (disciples or Campbellites) under Sidney Rigdon’s leadership. In the summer of 1830, as Parley journeyed by canal through New York to visit relatives, the Spirit prompted him to send his wife, Thankful, on ahead so he could stop to preach his religious ideas near Palmyra at the village of Newark. A Baptist deacon told him about the Book of Mormon and let him read it. He eagerly read the title page and the testimony of the witnesses and began to read the text. He recounted the following:
“I read all day; eating was a burden, I had no desire for food; sleep was a burden when the night came, for I preferred reading to sleep.
“As I read, the spirit of the Lord was upon me, and I knew and comprehended that the book was true, as plainly and manifestly as a man comprehends and knows that he exists. My joy was now full, as it were, and I rejoiced sufficiently to more than pay me for all the sorrows, sacrifices and toils of my life. I soon determined to see the young man who had been the instrument of its discovery and translation.
“I accordingly visited the village of Palmyra, and inquired for the residence of Mr. Joseph Smith. I found it some two or three miles from the village. As I approached the house at the close of the day I overtook a man who was driving some cows. . . . It was Hyrum Smith. I informed him of the interest I felt in the Book of Mormon, and of my desire to learn more about it. He welcomed me to his house. . . . We conversed most of the night, during which I unfolded to him much of my experience in my search after truth, and my success so far; together with that which I felt was lacking, viz. a commissioned priesthood, or apostleship to minister in the ordinances of God.”21
Orson Pratt (1811–81)—missionary, scholar, Church historian, and Apostle
Hyrum continued to teach Parley, and they soon journeyed to Fayette to meet the Whitmers and other members of the growing branch of the Church. Parley was baptized and ordained an elder by Oliver Cowdery in September 1830. Invested with authority, Parley traveled to his boyhood home in Columbia County, New York, where he addressed large audiences each day, but only his brother Orson accepted the message. Orson was baptized on his nineteenth birthday and left within two weeks to meet the Prophet Joseph Smith in Fayette.
The Prophet’s Move to Fayette


Meanwhile in Harmony, Joseph Smith, assisted by John Whitmer, began to arrange and copy the revelations Joseph had received. While engaged in this project, Joseph received a letter from Oliver Cowdery that grieved him. Oliver said he had discovered the following error of language in one of the revelations: “and truly manifest by their works that they have received of the Spirit of Christ unto the remission of their sins” (D&C 20:37). Believing that his position as the second elder in the Church authorized him to do so, Oliver wrote to Joseph. Joseph reported:
“The . . . quotation, he said, was erroneous, and added: ‘I command you in the name of God to erase those words, that no priestcraft be amongst us!’
“I immediately wrote to him in reply, in which I asked him by what authority he took upon him to command me to alter or erase, to add to or diminish from, a revelation or commandment from Almighty God.”
About this time a Methodist minister convinced Isaac Hale of many falsehoods about his son-in-law. As a result, life became unbearable for Joseph and his family in Harmony. Therefore, Joseph began to make preparations to permanently move to Fayette where he had been invited to live with Peter Whitmer, Sr., again. In late August, Newel Knight took his team and wagon to Harmony to move Joseph and his family to Fayette. Upon arriving there, Joseph discovered that the Whitmers agreed with Oliver Cowdery about the supposed error in the revelation. Joseph noted, “It was not without both labor and perseverance that I could prevail with any of them to reason calmly on the subject. However, Christian Whitmer at length became convinced that the sentence was reasonable, and according to Scripture; and finally, with his assistance, I succeeded in bringing, not only the Whitmer family, but also Oliver Cowdery to acknowledge that they had been in error, and that the sentence in dispute was in accordance with the rest of the commandment.”22
In Fayette Joseph encountered another serious problem regarding revelation. Hiram Page, one of the Eight Witnesses and a brother-in-law to the Whitmers, possessed a stone through which he received what he called “revelations” about the building of Zion and the order of the Church. Joseph insisted that these claims “were entirely at variance with the order of God’s house, as laid down in the New Testament, as well as in our late revelations.”23 Since a conference was scheduled for 26 September, the Prophet decided not to do more than talk with the brethren about the subject until the conference met. Many people, especially Oliver Cowdery and the Whitmers, believed in the claims of Hiram Page.
The Prophet turned to the Lord in prayer and received a revelation directed to Oliver Cowdery in which he was charged not to command Joseph Smith, the leader of the Church. The Lord made it clear that only the President of the Church has the right to receive revelations for the Church (see D&C 28:2). He also was told that the location of the city of Zion had not yet been revealed, but would be in due time (see v. 9). Furthermore, Oliver was instructed to go to Hiram Page and convince him that the stone and the purported revelations came from Satan (see v. 11). At the scheduled September conference, Hiram Page’s stone was discussed; those present, including Hiram, renounced it and the “revelations” received through it as false. The conference also voted that Joseph Smith was to “receive and write Revelations & Commandments for this Church.”24 In all, the conference lasted three days. Joseph testified that “much of the power of God manifested amongst us; the Holy Ghost came upon us, and filled us with joy unspeakable; and peace, and faith, and hope, and charity abounded in our midst.”25
Endnotes


1. “150-Year Drama: A Personal View of Our History,” Ensign, Apr. 1980, pp. 11–12.
2. “History of Joseph Smith,” Times and Seasons, 1 Oct. 1842, pp. 928–29.
3. See letter from Edward Stevenson to F. D. Richards, 10 Jan. 1887, cited in Journal of Edward Stevenson, 1886, vol. 3, LDS Historical Department, Salt Lake City.
4. See Larry C. Porter, “A Study of the Origins of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the States of New York and Pennsylvania, 1816–1831,” Ph.D. diss., Brigham Young University, 1971, pp. 374–86.
5. History of the Church, 1:79.
6. In Lucy Mack Smith, History of Joseph Smith, ed. Preston Nibley (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1958), p. 168; see also History of the Church, 1:79.
7. History of the Church, 1:81.
8. History of the Church, 1:82.
9. History of the Church, 1:81–83.
10. History of the Church, 1:83–84.
11. See Donald Q. Cannon and Lyndon W. Cook, eds., Far West Record: Minutes of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1830–1844 (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1983), pp. 1–3.
12. History of the Church, 1:84–86.
13. History of the Church, 1:86.
14. Joseph Knight, Jr., “Joseph Knight’s Incidents of History from 1827 to 1844,” comp. Thomas Bullock, from loose sheets in Joseph Knight’s possession, LDS Historical Department, Salt Lake City, p. 2; see also History of the Church, 1:87–88.
15. History of the Church, 1:88–89.
16. History of the Church, 1:91–94.
17. History of the Church, 1:97.
18. Newel Knight’s Journal, typescript, LDS Historical Department, Salt Lake City, p. 11; see also Larry C. Porter, “The Joseph Knight Family,” Ensign, Oct. 1978, p. 42.
19. See Robert J. Matthews, “A Plainer Translation,” Joseph Smith’s Translation of the Bible: A History and Commentary (Provo: Brigham Young University Press, 1975), pp. 25–26.
20. See History of the Church, 1:108.
21. Parley P. Pratt, ed., Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, Classics in Mormon Literature series (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1985), pp. 20–22.
22. History of the Church, 1:105.
23. History of the Church, 1:110.
24. In Cannon and Cook, Far West Record, p. 3; see also Doctrine and Covenants 21.
25. History of the Church, 1:115.

_________________


Et veillez à avoir la foi, l'espérance et la charité; alors vous abonderez toujours en bonnes oeuvres. En souvenir des Néphites qui présidaient aux cérémonies initiatiques dans la forêt de Zarahemla et qui en fut le secret... DAT ROSA MEL APIBUS
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CHAPTER SEVEN
The Infant Church Expands



Time Line
Date

Significant Event
Sept.–Oct. 1830Call extended for missionaries to the Lamanites
Nov. 1830Missionaries visited Western Reserve (Ohio) and baptized 127 people
Dec. 1830Sidney Rigdon and Edward Partridge journeyed to New York to meet the Prophet
Dec. 1830Through revelation Joseph received part of the ancient book of Enoch
Jan. 1831Missionaries reached western Missouri and began preaching to the Indians in the unorganized territory
Feb. 1831Parley P. Pratt returned to the East to report on his mission
Since early 1830 the Latter-day Saints have acknowledged the American Indian as a remnant of the house of Israel, who great promises have been extended to. Referring to these people as “Lamanites,” a Book of Mormon prophet declared, “At some period of time they will be brought to believe in his [God’s] word, and to know of the incorrectness of the traditions of their fathers; and many of them will be saved” (Alma 9:17). The 1830 Saints believed these promises and were moved since the early days of the Church to bring to pass their fulfillment.
Call to Teach the Lamanites


The Church was barely six months old when Oliver Cowdery was called by revelation to go to the Lamanites and preach the gospel (see D&C 28:8). Subsequently Peter Whitmer, Jr., Ziba Peterson, and Parley P. Pratt were called to assist him (see D&C 30:5; 32:1–3). The destination of the missionaries was “the borders by the Lamanites” (D&C 28:9). This phrase was understood to refer to the line between Missouri and the Indian territory to the west. For more than twenty years many Americans had agitated for the removal of Indians from the Eastern States to a permanent Indian frontier in the plains beyond. As a result of this agitation, less than four months before the call of the missionaries, President Andrew Jackson signed into law the “Indian Removal Act.” The Shawnee and Delaware Indians from Ohio, anticipating these developments, made the move on their own as early as 1828–29. Both tribes settled near the Kansas River just west of the Missouri border.
Indian territory at the time of the first Lamanite mission. Several of these “reservations” were created and occupied prior to President Andrew Jackson’s 1830 Indian Removal Act.
[click for scalable version]
Following the second conference of the Church, preparations for the missionary journey began in earnest. Emma Smith and several other sisters made arrangements to furnish the missionaries with necessary clothing. Even though Emma was not well, she spent many hours sewing suitable clothing for each missionary. Saints in the Fayette, New York, area generously furnished food, and Martin Harris supplied copies of the Book of Mormon for distribution. Before departing, the missionaries bound themselves in writing to give “heed unto all [the] words and advice” of Oliver Cowdery. They pledged to proclaim the “fulness of the Gospel” to their brethren, the Lamanites.1 On 18 October they began their fifteen-hundred-mile westward trek.
Shortly after their call, the missionaries to the Lamanites signed a covenant of cooperation before leaving New York. The original has not been found, but scholars believe that this transcription printed in the Ravenna, Ohio Star, on 8 December 1831 is an accurate representation of the agreement.
Courtesy of the Brigham Young University Library
Early Success on the Western Reserve


The missionaries visited a friendly tribe of Seneca Indians on the Cattaraugus Reservation near Buffalo, New York, where they paused just long enough to introduce the Book of Mormon as a record of their forgotten ancestors. “We were kindly received, and much interest was manifested by them on hearing this news,” Parley reported.2 Leaving two copies of the book, the missionaries journeyed onward. So far as is known, these were the first American Indians to hear the message of the Restoration in this dispensation.
Missionaries to the Lamanites trudging through the snow
When the elders arrived in northeastern Ohio, they reached an area popularly known as the Western Reserve because in colonial times it was allotted to Connecticut as a “western reserve.” Parley P. Pratt was familiar with this country, having lived at Amherst, fifty miles west of Kirtland, for about four years before his conversion to the Church. Parley had studied under Sidney Rigdon, a prominent minister in the area who presided over a group of seekers (people seeking a return to New Testament Christianity). At one time Sidney merged his interests with those of another seeker, Alexander Campbell, and helped found the church called the Disciples of Christ, also known as the Campbellites. But Rigdon disagreed with Campbell on certain doctrinal practices and formed his own group, the Reformed Baptist Society. Because of his former close associations with Rigdon, Elder Pratt convinced his companions to visit Sidney in Mentor, Ohio, where he testified to his former teacher that the Restoration had occurred, including the restoration of divine authority. Oliver Cowdery, an eyewitness to the restoration of the priesthood, bore firsthand testimony of that event.
Some colonial charters allowed the colonies to claim extensive tracts of western land. As pointed out in the text, Ohio’s “Western Reserve” derived its name from the fact that it was part of Connecticut’s claim in the West. It consisted of eight northeastern Ohio counties.

_________________


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Although Sidney treated the missionaries cordially and with respect, his was no instantaneous conversion. He told the elders, “I will read your book, and see what claims it has upon my faith.” The elders then asked to present their message in Rigdon’s church. Consent was given, “the appointment was accordingly published, and a large and respectable congregation assembled.” At the end of the meeting, Rigdon, with commendable open-mindedness, told his listeners that the message they had just heard “was of an extraordinary character, and certainly demanded their most serious consideration.” He reminded the congregation of the Apostle Paul’s advice to “prove all things; hold fast that which is good” (1 Thessalonians 5:21).3
Meanwhile, the elders were not idle. Less than five miles from Rigdon’s home in Mentor was the village of Kirtland, where numerous members of Sidney’s congregation lived. The missionaries preached from house to house, likewise receiving respectful attention. Soon some residents were convinced that no one among them possessed the divine authority necessary to administer gospel ordinances and that they had not been authoritatively baptized themselves. After much study and prayer, many people, including Sidney Rigdon, requested baptism at the hands of the missionaries. News of their teachings spread rapidly. Parley reported, “The people thronged us night and day, insomuch that we had no time for rest and retirement. Meetings were convened in different neighborhoods, and multitudes came together soliciting our attendance; while thousands flocked about us daily; some to be taught, some for curiosity, some to obey the gospel, and some to dispute or resist it.”4
John Murdock (1792–1871) was a missionary, bishop, pioneer of 1847, member of Salt Lake high council, and patriarch.
Within three weeks of the missionaries’ arrival, 127 persons were baptized. Prominent among the number were Isaac Morley, Levi Hancock, Lyman Wight, and John Murdock, well-known residents of the area who were destined to play an important role in future Church affairs. In reminiscing later about his own baptism and its effect upon him, John Murdock wrote that “the Spirit of the Lord sensibly attended the ministration, and I came out of the water rejoicing and singing praises to God, and the Lamb.”5
Another early Ohio convert, Philo Dibble, who lived about five miles east of Kirtland, was told of a “golden Bible.” Curious, he sought out the missionaries and, after hearing Oliver Cowdery speak, believed and presented himself for baptism. His description of the spiritual power attending his reception of the Holy Ghost may be a clue to why so many early Saints found joy in the Restoration:
“When I came out of the water, I knew that I had been born of water and of the spirit, for my mind was illuminated with the Holy Ghost.
“. . . While in bed that night I felt what appeared to be a hand upon my left shoulder and a sensation like fibers of fire immediately enveloped my body. . . . I was enveloped in a heavenly influence, and could not sleep for joy.”6
Frederick G. Williams (1787–1842) was the Prophet Joseph Smith’s family physician, counselor, and friend. He was always very liberal in his contributions to the Church. After his death, his wife, son, and daughter-in-law emigrated to Utah with the Saints.
The brief stopover the missionaries made in the Western Reserve that November bore immediate and lasting fruits. These Ohio conversions more than doubled Church membership in only three weeks. It was as the Lord had promised the Saints by revelation: “For behold the field is white already to harvest; and lo, he that thrusteth in his sickle with his might, the same layeth up in store that he perisheth not, but bringeth salvation to his soul” (D&C 4:4; see also 11:3; 12:3). The missionaries ordained Sidney Rigdon and a few others and left them in charge of the ministry. In company with Frederick G. Williams, who had practiced medicine in Kirtland prior to his conversion, they continued their westward journey toward the “border of the Lamanites.”
A Visit to the Prophet in New York


Shortly after the missionaries left Kirtland, Sidney Rigdon and a close associate, Edward Partridge, decided to go to New York “to inquire further” into the origins of the restored gospel that had just been introduced to them. Lydia Partridge wrote, “My husband partly believed, but he had to take a journey to New York State and see the Prophet” before he could be satisfied.7 According to Philo Dibble, Partridge also went in behalf of others. He was told by a neighbor, “We have sent a man down to York State to find out the truth of this work, and he is a man who will not lie.”8
Arriving in Manchester, New York, in December 1830, Sidney and Edward learned that Joseph was living with the Whitmers in Fayette township, twenty miles away. Upon inquiring among the neighbors concerning the Smith family, they found that their reputation had been impeccable until Joseph had made known his discovery of the Book of Mormon. They also noted the “good order and industry” of the family farm. Edward and Sidney found the Prophet at his parents’ place in Waterloo, where Edward asked Joseph Smith to baptize him. Four days later Edward was ordained an elder by Sidney Rigdon, his friend and traveling companion.9
Joseph Smith was impressed with Sidney and Edward from the first. He referred to the latter as “a pattern of piety, and one of the Lord’s great men.”10 Shortly after Edward’s baptism, the Prophet received revelations setting forth the duties and callings of both men. Because of his influence upon his followers, the Lord compared Sidney to John the Baptist, who had prepared the way for Jesus Christ. Sidney’s new assignment was to serve as scribe for Joseph Smith (see D&C 35:4, 20). Edward was called to preach the gospel “as with the voice of a trump” (D&C 36:1). Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon were admonished to strengthen the Church wherever it was found, but “more especially in Colesville; for, behold, they pray unto me in much faith” (D&C 37:2).
The faith of the Colesville Saints was rewarded with a visit from the Prophet and his new associate, Sidney Rigdon. Here Sidney’s oratorical gifts were first evidenced in the Church as he obeyed the command he had received by revelation to “preach my gospel and call on the holy prophets to prove his words” (D&C 35:23). He delivered an effective and powerful sermon.
The New York Saints were also blessed by important doctrinal revelations given to Joseph Smith. Between June and October 1830 he worked on an inspired revision of the book of Genesis. Joseph said that at the time “much conjecture and conversation frequently occurred among the Saints, concerning the books mentioned, and referred to, in various places in the Old and New Testaments, which were now nowhere to be found. The common remark was, ‘They are lost books;’ but it seems the Apostolic Church had some of these writings, as Jude mentions or quotes the Prophecy of Enoch, the seventh from Adam.”11 To the joy of the Church, which now numbered about seventy in New York, the Lord revealed a portion of the ancient book of Enoch, which included a lengthy prophecy about the future. Through this account, now found in Moses 7 in the Pearl of Great Price, the Lord “encouraged and strengthened the faith of His little flock . . . by giving some more extended information upon the Scriptures” than was previously known.12
Journey to Missouri


Meanwhile, the five missionaries to the Indians continued to preach to all people as they proceeded westward. Parley P. Pratt wrote, “Some wished to learn and obey the fulness of the gospel. . . . Others were filled with envy, rage and lying.”13
Fifty miles west of Kirtland, in Amherst, Ohio, Parley was arrested on a frivolous charge, tried, found guilty, and ordered to pay a fine. Because he could not pay, Parley spent the night locked in a public inn. The next morning, he was visited briefly by his companions and urged them to move ahead on their journey, promising to soon rejoin them. Parley reported: “After sitting awhile by the fire in charge of the officer, I requested to step out. I walked out into the public square accompanied by him. Said I, ‘Mr. Peabody, are you good at a race?’ ‘No,’ said he, ‘but my big bull dog is, and he has been trained to assist me in my office these several years; he will take any man down at my bidding.’ ‘Well, Mr. Peabody, you compelled me to go a mile, I have gone with you two miles. You have given me an opportunity to preach, sing, and have also entertained me with lodging and breakfast. I must now go on my journey; if you are good at a race you can accompany me. I thank you for all your kindness—good day, sir.’
“I then started on my journey, while he stood amazed and not able to step one foot before the other. . . . He did not awake from his astonishment sufficiently to start in pursuit till I had gained, perhaps, two hundred yards. . . . He now came hallooing after me, and shouting to his dog to seize me. The dog, being one of the largest I ever saw, came close on my footsteps with all his fury; the officer behind still in pursuit, clapping his hands and hallooing, ‘stu-boy, stu-boy—take him—watch—lay hold of him, I say—down with him,’ and pointing his finger in the direction I was running. The dog was fast overtaking me, and in the act of leaping upon me, when, quick as lightning, the thought struck me, to assist the officer, in sending the dog with all fury to the forest a little distance before me. I pointed my finger in that direction, clapped my hands, and shouted in imitation of the officer. The dog hastened past me with redoubled speed towards the forest; being urged by the officer and myself, and both of us running in the same direction.”


The missionaries traveled approximately fifteen hundred miles during the fall and winter of 1830–31 to bring the gospel to the Lamanites who had been relocated west of Missouri. The trip was made on foot, except for a steamboat ride between Cincinnati, Ohio, and Cairo, Illinois.

_________________


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Having eluded both the dog and the officer, Elder Pratt rejoined his companions via an alternate route. Parley later learned that Simeon Carter, who he had left a Book of Mormon with, along with about sixty others in that area had joined the Church and formed a branch.14
The missionaries had not forgotten their charge to teach the gospel to Native Americans. At Sandusky, Ohio, they stopped for several days among the Wyandot Indians. Parley wrote, “They rejoiced in the tidings, bid us God speed, and desired us to write to them in relation to our success among the tribes further west.”15
It was winter when the intrepid missionaries left Sandusky for Cincinnati, and they walked all the way. The winter of 1830–31 is known in midwest annals as the winter of the deep snow. The latter part of December 1830 was “bitter cold, a blinding, swirling blur of snow, and leaden, lowering skies, combined to make this storm a thing to paralyze that prairie country. It seems to have continued for days, unabated—a wonder, at first, then a terror, a benumbing horror as it became a menace to [the] life of men and animals.”16 In Cincinnati, Ohio, five days before Christmas, the elders boarded a steamboat bound for St. Louis. Ice floes, however, choked the Ohio River, compelling them to disembark in Cairo, Illinois, and continue on foot. “Twenty miles from St. Louis, . . . a dreadful storm of rain and snow” forced a week’s delay and left snow “in some places near three feet deep.”
Slowly they pressed westward, trudging through the knee-deep snow for entire days “without a house or fire,” the “bleak northwest wind always blowing in our faces with a keenness which would almost take the skin off,” wrote Parley. “The cold [was] so intense that the snow did not melt on the south side of the houses, even in the mid-day sun, for nearly six weeks.” For three hundred miles they carried their clothes, books, and food in knapsacks on their backs. All they had to eat was frozen corn bread and raw pork. Parley said the bread was “so frozen that we could not bite or penetrate any part of it but the outside crust.” For a month and a half they endured exhaustion and hardship as they traveled from Kirtland to Independence. On 13 January 1831 the missionaries arrived in Independence, Missouri, the western frontier of the United States.17
Teaching the Gospel


Nearing their destination, the missionaries took up residence in the home of Colonel Robert Patterson on the western boundary of Missouri while waiting for the weather to moderate. About 1 February, Peter Whitmer and Ziba Peterson set up a tailor shop in Independence to earn needed funds while Oliver Cowdery, Parley P. Pratt, and Frederick G. Williams entered Indian lands to preach and introduce the Book of Mormon.18
They found a listener in William Anderson, the aged chief of the Delawares, son of a Scandinavian father and an Indian mother. The chief had been unwilling to listen to other Christians, but he was finally persuaded to hear the missionaries. With about forty tribal leaders comfortably seated in the chief’s lodge, Oliver Cowdery was invited to speak. He quickly gained their confidence as he recounted the long and difficult trip from the East to bring news of the Book of Mormon to them. He acknowledged the Indians’ present plight: once they were many, now they were few; once their possessions were great, now they were small. Skillfully he wove the Book of Mormon story into his narrative: “Thousands of moons ago, when the red men’s forefathers dwelt in peace and possessed this whole land, the Great Spirit talked with them, and revealed His law and His will, and much knowledge to their wise men and prophets.” Oliver told them that this, their history, and prophecies of the “things which should befall their children in the latter days” were written in a book. He promised that if they would receive and follow this book, their “Great Father” would make them prosperous again and return them to their former greatness. He explained that he and his companions had come to bring them copies of the book, which held the key to their future success. Chief Anderson expressed his gratitude for the white men’s kindness:
“‘It makes us glad in here’—placing his hand on his heart.
“‘It is now winter, we are new settlers in this place; the snow is deep, our cattle and horses are dying, our wigwams are poor; we have much to do in the spring—to build houses, and fence and make farms; but we will build a council house, and meet together, and you shall read to us and teach us more concerning the Book of our fathers and the will of the Great Spirit.’”
The elders “continued for several days to instruct the old chief and many of his tribe.” Their hosts’ desire to learn more about the Book of Mormon grew each day, and the elders, finding several people who could read, distributed copies among them, and the readers helped spread the word.19
Government Indian agents were in control of the area, and unfortunately the missionaries had not obtained the required permit to enter Indian lands and teach the gospel. The local Indian agent immediately informed them that they were in violation of the law and ordered them to desist until they had secured permission from General William Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs in St. Louis.20 Parley P. Pratt stated, however, that when news of the missionaries’ success reached the frontier settlements of Missouri it “stirred up the jealousy and envy of the Indian agents and sectarian missionaries to that degree that we were soon ordered out of the Indian country as disturbers of the peace; and even threatened with the military in case of non-compliance.”21
William Clark (1770–1838). After returning from his epic exploration of the Louisiana Purchase with Meriweather Lewis, William Clark was made Indian agent for the tribes of the Louisiana Territory by President Thomas Jefferson. Clark spent most of the rest of his life as a government Indian official. He became Superintendent of Indian Affairs in 1822 and was in this position when Oliver Cowdery wrote to him.
Courtesy of the Library of Congress
In a letter dated 14 February 1831, Oliver Cowdery wrote to General Clark explaining that he represented a religious society centered in New York State and wished to establish “schools for the instruction of [the Indian] children and also teaching [their elders] the Christian religion.” This they would do, he said, “without intruding or interfering with any other Mission now established.”22 It is not known if Clark ever responded to their request or granted permission. The missionaries settled in Independence and preached the gospel to interested settlers there.
Oliver Cowdery’s 14 February 1831 letter to William Clark proposing to establish schools for Indian children
Courtesy of Kansas City Historical Society
Meanwhile Parley P. Pratt was selected to return to the East and report the mission and to obtain more copies of the Book of Mormon. After he left, the other missionaries’ interest in the Indians increased as they learned of the existence of the Navajos, a large, industrious tribe living about three hundred miles west of Santa Fe.23 Circumstances forced the missionaries to abandon any further attempts to take the gospel to any other Indian tribes.
Assessment of the Missionary Journey


Although the “Lamanite mission” was not very successful in proselyting native Americans, it did have a significant impact on the subsequent history of the Church. It not only introduced the gospel for the first time to this remnant of the house of Israel, but it created an awareness of how important these people were in the eyes of the Lord.
In terms of conversions and immediate impact, the mission was most successful among the white settlers in the Western Reserve. Many people who would have a significant impact on the growing Church were drawn into the gospel net in Ohio. Within months there were more members in Ohio than in New York, so when conditions in New York required a move, Ohio was designated by the Lord as the gathering place and headquarters of the Church.
In another sense the mission demonstrated the motivating power of the Book of Mormon as a means of conversion and as a test of the strength conversion brought. This book of scripture was the means of redirecting the course of many lives.
The Lamanite mission also paved the way for future revelation respecting the land of Zion, although it was not so recognized right away. The precise location of the center of Zion was not yet revealed, although the Lord had already indicated to the Saints that Zion would be “on the borders by the Lamanites” (D&C 28:9). Five stalwart members of the Church now had experience in that area and could witness that this was a goodly land.
Endnotes


1. Letter dated 17 Oct. 1830, in Ohio Star, 8 Dec. 1831, p. 1.
2. Parley P. Pratt, ed., Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, Classics in Mormon Literature series (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1985), p. 35.
3. History of the Church, 1:124; “History of Joseph Smith,” Times and Seasons, 15 Aug. 1843, pp. 289–90.
4. Pratt, Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, pp. 35–36.
5. John Murdock, “An Abridged Record of the Life of John Murdock Taken from His Journals by Himself,” LDS Historical Department, Salt Lake City, p. 16.
6. Philo Dibble, “Philo Dibble’s Narrative,” Early Scenes in Church History (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1882), pp. 75–76.
7. Account of Lydia Partridge, cited in Edward Partridge genealogical record, 1878, LDS Historical Department, Salt Lake City, p. 5.
8. Dibble, “Philo Dibble’s Narrative,” p. 77.
9. See Lucy Mack Smith, History of Joseph Smith, ed. Preston Nibley (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1958), pp. 191–92.
10. History of the Church, 1:128.
11. History of the Church, 1:132; punctuation standardized.
12. History of the Church, 1:131–33.
13. Pratt, Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, p. 36.
14. Pratt, Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, pp. 36, 38–39.
15. Pratt, Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, p. 39.
16. Eleanor Atkinson, “The Winter of the Deep Snow,” Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the Year 1909, p. 49.
17. Pratt, Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, p. 40.
18. See Warren A. Jennings, “Zion Is Fled: The Expulsion of the Mormons from Jackson County, Missouri,” Ph.D. diss., University of Florida, 1962, pp. 6–7; interview of A. W. Doniphan, in Kansas City Journal, 24 June 1881, cited in Saint’s Herald, 1 Aug. 1881.
19. Pratt, Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, pp. 42–44.
20. See letter from Major Richard Cummins to General William Clark, 13 Feb. 1831, William Clark Letter Book (Topeka, Kans.: Kansas State Historical Society, n.d.) roll 2, vol. 6, pp. 113–14.
21. Pratt, Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, p. 44.
22. Letter from Oliver Cowdery to General William Clark, 14 Feb. 1831, William Clark Letter Book, p. 103.
23. See Oliver Cowdery, in History of the Church, 1:182.

_________________


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MessageSujet: Re: HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH   Dim 27 Jan - 3:42

CHAPTER EIGHT
Gathering to Ohio



Time Line
Date

Significant Event
2 Jan. 1831Third general conference of the Church was held in Fayette, New York
Early Feb. 1831Joseph Smith arrived in Ohio
Feb. 1831Law of consecration revealed
May–June 1831New York immigrants arrived in Ohio
May 1831Revelation on false spirits given
3 June 1831Fourth general conference of the Church was held in Kirtland, Ohio
7 June 1831Commandment was given to go to Missouri (see D&C 52)
When the year 1831 arrived, most members of the Church were thinking of gathering to Ohio. Sometime in December of 1830 the Lord commanded his people to move to Ohio (see D&C 37:3). Because of this Joseph and his scribe, Sidney Rigdon, temporarily stopped the translation of the scriptures. On New Year’s Day the Prophet and his associates in Fayette completed preparations for the third general conference of the Church, which was scheduled to consider the move to Ohio.
The Saints Instructed to Gather


On 2 January 1831 the Saints from the various branches throughout New York met in the home of Peter Whitmer, Sr. After transacting some Church business, Joseph Smith “addressed the congregation and exhorted them to stand fast, looking forward considering the end of their salvation.” Following his remarks, several Church members inquired about the commandment to move to Ohio. In the “presence of the congregation,”1 Joseph Smith prayed to the Lord and received a revelation (see D&C 38). It promised the Latter-day Saints “greater riches, even a land of promise, a land flowing with milk and honey, upon which there shall be no curse when the Lord cometh;
“And I will give it unto you for the land of your inheritance, if you seek it with all your hearts” (D&C 38:18–19). The precise location of Zion, however, was not revealed. For the present, the Saints were to go to Ohio, where the Lord promised to reveal to them his “law,” endow them with power, and give further instructions pertaining to the growth of the Church (see D&C 38:32–33).
John Whitmer (1802–78) was the first presiding elder of the Kirtland Saints until Joseph Smith arrived in February 1831.
Not everyone at the conference was in harmony with this revelation. A few people claimed that Joseph Smith invented it to deceive the people and to enrich himself. John Whitmer wrote in his history that this claim arose because the hearts of the Saints “were not right in the sight of the Lord, for they wanted to serve [both] God and man.” In addition, some people were reluctant “to leave prosperous farms and comfortable circumstances for the uncertainties” of the Western Reserve in Ohio.2 There was the prospect that many would lose money and some might even be unable to sell their property (see D&C 38:37). Most of the New York Saints, however, reconciled themselves to the commandment and made preparations to leave.
Following the conference, Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon went to Colesville to strengthen the members of the Colesville branch and to preach for the last time to nonmembers in the vicinity. Threats on their lives prevented them from extended proselyting. Upon their return to Fayette, the Prophet sent John Whitmer to Ohio with copies of several of the revelations to comfort and strengthen the Saints. Brother Whitmer was also assigned to be their presiding elder until the arrival of the Prophet. By the time he arrived in Kirtland, the membership of the Church in Geauga and Cuyahoga counties in Ohio had swelled to about three hundred, more than twice the number reported only two months earlier.3 Since the departure of the missionaries to the Lamanites, proselyting in the area had continued unabated. One of the most successful missionaries was the former restorationist preacher, John Murdock. Between November 1830 and March 1831, he baptized over seventy settlers living in Cuyahoga County.4 Other missionaries fared equally well in their labors in Ohio.
Gathering to Ohio Begins


Moving to Ohio was advantageous to the young Church. By leaving New York the Saints hoped to leave behind religious persecution, particularly in the Colesville area. In addition, there were more Church members in Ohio than anywhere else, and gathering in one place enabled everyone to receive instructions from the Prophet, thus maintaining doctrinal and organizational uniformity. Ohio’s available waterways also provided a gateway to the rest of the country for missionary work. But, most important, the move to Ohio was a step closer to “the borders by the Lamanites,” where Zion would be established (D&C 28:9). In Ohio many principles pertaining to the building of Zion could be implemented.
Joseph Smith was eager to meet with the Saints in Ohio, and John Whitmer wrote urging him to come right away. Joseph sought the Lord’s will and was told to leave immediately, but the prospect of moving seemed grim to Emma. She had moved seven times in the first four years of marriage and was just recovering from a month-long illness in addition to being six months pregnant. Under such conditions the three-hundred mile trip to Ohio in the dead of winter was arduous at best. Joseph Knight graciously provided a sleigh to make traveling less strenuous for her. At the end of January 1831, Joseph and Emma Smith, Sidney Rigdon, and Edward Partridge set out for Kirtland.
Newel K. Whitney (1795–1850) was a successful businessman as well as prominent in civic affairs. In 1844 he was sustained as the second bishop in the Church, and in 1847 as the first Presiding Bishop.
About the first of February the sleigh pulled up in front of Newel K. Whitney’s store in Kirtland. Joseph sprang from the sleigh and entered the store. “‘Newel K. Whitney! Thou art the man.’ he exclaimed, extending his hand cordially, as if to an old and familiar acquaintance. ‘You have the advantage of me,’ replied the merchant, . . . ‘I could not call you by name as you have me.’ ‘I am Joseph the Prophet,’ said the stranger smiling. ‘You’ve prayed me here, now what do you want of me?’” Joseph explained to the amazed merchant that back in New York he had seen Newel in a vision praying for him to come to Kirtland.5 The Whitneys received Joseph and Emma Smith with kindness and invited them to live temporarily with them. During the next several weeks the Smiths “received every kindness and attention which could be expected, and especially from Sister Whitney.”6
The Newel K. Whitney store, located at the four corners area in Kirtland, was built between 1826 and 1827. Many important things took place there, including the following:

  1. Joseph and Emma Smith lived there beginning in the fall of 1832.
  2. The store became the headquarters of the Church.
  3. Joseph Smith III was born there on 6 November 1832.
  4. The School of the Prophets, which commenced on 24 January 1833 and ended sometime in April, was held there.
  5. Many revelations were given there to the Prophet Joseph Smith, including Doctrine and Covenants 84, 87–89, 95, and 98.
  6. For a time the store was used as the bishops’ storehouse.
  7. Joseph Smith completed much of the translation of the Bible there.
In 1979 the Church acquired the Newel K. Whitney store and soon after began to restore it. The building was dedicated 25 August 1984 by President Gordon B. Hinckley.

_________________


Et veillez à avoir la foi, l'espérance et la charité; alors vous abonderez toujours en bonnes oeuvres. En souvenir des Néphites qui présidaient aux cérémonies initiatiques dans la forêt de Zarahemla et qui en fut le secret... DAT ROSA MEL APIBUS
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MessageSujet: Re: HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH   Dim 27 Jan - 3:43

Between the end of January and the middle of May 1831, most of the New York Saints sold their possessions, packed their most precious material goods, and migrated to Kirtland and the adjacent areas. Joseph Smith and a few others went early and were followed by three separate companies—the Colesville Saints, members from Fayette and surrounding locations in Seneca County, and those from Palmyra-Manchester. A few others came later in the year.
The Colesville branch was the first group to leave. They arrived in Buffalo on 1 May to find that bitter lake winds had blown ice into the Buffalo harbor, which delayed them for eleven dreary days. They finally arrived in Fairport, Ohio, on 14 May. Over two hundred people went to Ohio, some by sleigh and stage coach, but most by canal barges to Buffalo and then by steamboats and schooners on Lake Erie.
Lucy Mack Smith (1776–1856)
Meanwhile Church members in the Fayette vicinity also prepared for migration. With her older sons and husband already gone, Lucy Smith, a natural leader in her own right, organized a party of about fifty people (twenty adults and thirty children) to occupy a barge on the Cayuga and Seneca Canal. Another group of about thirty, organized by Thomas B. Marsh, took passage on an accompanying barge, and together the two boats traveled to Buffalo.
En route, Lucy “called the brethren and sisters together, and reminded them that we were traveling by the commandment of the Lord, as much as Father Lehi was, when he left Jerusalem; and, if faithful, we had the same reasons to expect the blessings of God.”7 Although they suffered from hunger because some had brought clothing rather than food, they sang and prayed as they journeyed and left a favorable impression on the captain. Lucy took charge of the situation and prevented greater suffering.
When they arrived in Buffalo, they met the icebound Colesville Saints. After several anxious days in Buffalo, a number of the children had become sick, and many of the group were hungry and discouraged. They took deck passage on a boat, put their things on board, and obtained temporary shelter for the women and children until early the next morning. When they were back on board, Lucy persuaded the still murmuring group to ask the Lord to break the twenty-foot clogs of ice that jammed the harbor. She explained, “A noise was heard, like bursting thunder. The captain cried, ‘Every man to his post.’ The ice parted, leaving barely a passage for the boat, and so narrow that as the boat passed through the buckets of the waterwheel were torn off with a crash. . . . We had barely passed through the avenue when the ice closed together again.” The Colesville group followed a few days later.8
As these New York Saints were arriving in Ohio, a third party of about fifty people left Palmyra, New York, under the direction of Martin Harris. With their arrival in Ohio, the first phase of the westward movement of the Latter-day Saints ended. In contrast to many Americans who migrated westward at the same time seeking free or inexpensive land, adventure, or escape from creditors, these humble people moved in response to a commandment of God.9
Early Challenges in Ohio


During the three months Joseph Smith was in Kirtland before the Saints from New York began to arrive, he faced many challenges arising from the rapid growth of the Church there. The first problem was the manifestation of “strange notions and false spirits” among the members of the branch.10 Because they lacked the guidance of Church authorities in northern Ohio, some new members entertained “wild enthusiastic notions” about the effects of the Holy Spirit upon the converted. John Corrill, an early Ohio convert, was disturbed by the bizarre actions of some of the young people who claimed they saw visions: “They conducted themselves in a strange manner, sometimes imitating Indians in their maneuvers, sometimes running out into the fields, getting on stumps of trees and there preaching as though surrounded by a congregation,—all the while so completely absorbed in visions as to be apparently insensible to all that was passing around them.”11 Satan’s inroads in the Church were due to the credulity and gullibility of these new Saints who brought some of their previous ways with them and were without priesthood direction for a few months.
Only a few members behaved in this manner, however. “The more substantial minded looked upon it with astonishment, and were suspicious that it was from an evil source.”12 Distressed by what he saw, Joseph felt that these excesses were “calculated to bring disgrace upon the church of God; to cause the spirit of God to be withdrawn; and to uproot and destroy those glorious principles which had been developed for the salvation of the human family.”13 “With a little caution and some wisdom” and the guidance of several revelations, he succeeded in overcoming these problems.14
Still, in late February 1831, some individuals continued to claim they had received revelations. This was not a new problem; Hiram Page had done the same thing in Fayette the previous fall (see D&C 28). One of these so-called “revelators” was a professed prophetess named Hubble, who claimed she should be allowed to become a teacher in the Church. According to John Whitmer, she “appeared to be very sanctimonious and deceived some who were not able to detect her in her hypocrisy.” Many saw through her false claims, however, and “her follies and abominations were made manifest.”15 The Prophet inquired of the Lord about her stratagems. In a revelation directed to the elders of the Church, the Lord declared “that there is none other appointed unto you to receive commandments and revelations until [Joseph Smith] be taken, if he abide in me” (D&C 43:3). So-called revelations through others for the guidance of the Church were not of God (see D&C 43:4–6).
Shortly thereafter another revelation called the elders to go forth by twos in all directions to preach the gospel (see D&C 44:1–3; 42:6–7). Soon many elders were seen going into villages and towns throughout Ohio. For example, John Corrill recounted that he and Solomon Hancock “went to New London, about one hundred miles from Kirtland, where we built up a church [branch] of thirty-six members in about three weeks time, though we were bitterly opposed by other preachers.”16 That spring the Church in Ohio increased by several hundred converts.
The growing Church did not go unnoticed in northern Ohio. Joseph Smith wrote that in the spring of 1831, “many false reports, lies, and foolish stories, were published in the newspapers, and circulated in every direction, to prevent people from investigating the work, or embracing the faith.”17 For example, a devastating earthquake struck near Peking, China, which a young Mormon girl had predicted six weeks earlier. This event convinced Symonds Ryder, a well-known Campbellite preacher who had been perplexed over Mormonism for some time, to join the Church. His conversion caused quite a disturbance in the vicinity, and the earthquake was heralded in the newspapers as Mormonism in China. “But to the joy of the Saints who had to struggle against everything that prejudice and wickedness could invent,” the Prophet received a revelation that identified numerous signs that will precede the second coming of the Lord.18 In it the Saints were commanded to “stand in holy places” and take “the Holy Spirit for their guide,” and they were promised that they would be rewarded for this with the establishment of the “New Jerusalem” (D&C 45:32, 57, 66).
Also in the spring of 1831 a Methodist preacher named Ezra Booth brought a party to Kirtland, which included a well-to-do farmer named John Johnson and his wife, Alice, from Hiram, Ohio. Alice’s arm was partially paralyzed from rheumatism, and she could not raise it above her head. As they talked with the Prophet, one of the visitors asked if there was anyone on earth who had the power to cure Alice’s lame arm. When the conversation turned to another subject, Joseph went up to Mrs. Johnson, took her by the hand, and with calm assurance said, “Woman, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ I command thee to be whole.” As Joseph went from the room, leaving everyone astonished and speechless, she raised her arm. The next day she hung out her first wash in over six years without any pain. Ezra Booth and some members of the Johnson family joined the Church as a result of the healing. The miracle also attracted wide acclaim throughout northern Ohio.19
That same spring Parley P. Pratt returned to Kirtland with a report on the mission to the Lamanites and was delighted to see the tremendous growth of the Church. He was especially happy that Joseph had moved to Ohio. Parley was soon called to go on a mission to a religious group called the Shakers in northern Ohio.
The Shakers (United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Coming) originated in England and came to America in 1774 because of persecution. “They derive their name from their manner of worship, which [involved] singing, dancing, and clapping hands” to music, but “their dress and manner are similar to those of the [Quakers,] so they were sometimes called the Shaking Quakers.” The Shaking Quakers were led by Ann Lee from 1754 to 1784. She had claimed to be the Messiah returned to earth in female form. She taught that men and women were equals and that there should be no marriage among the believers.20 Leman Copley, a former Shaker, had converted to Mormonism but still believed that the Shakers were correct in many of their doctrines, so he asked Joseph for guidance on the matter.21 The revelation Joseph Smith received repudiated the Shaker doctrines of celibacy, abstaining from meat, and God appearing in the form of a woman. Sidney Rigdon, Parley P. Pratt, and Leman Copley were also called to take the gospel to the Shakers (see D&C 49). The trio visited a settlement of Shakers near Cleveland, Ohio, but according to Parley, “they utterly refused to hear or obey the gospel.”22
Elder Pratt then visited a number of branches of the Latter-day Saints in the Western Reserve, where he found the same spiritual fanaticism among the members that Joseph Smith had encountered when he arrived in Kirtland in February. Other elders were also disheartened by what they saw. John Whitmer related, “Some would fancy to themselves that they had the sword of Laban, and would wield it as expert as a light dragoon, some would act like an Indian in the act of scalping, some would slide or scoot on the floor, with the rapidity of a serpent, which termed sailing in the boat to the Lamanites, preaching the gospel, and many other vain and foolish maneuvers, that are unmeaning and unprofitable to mention. Thus the devil blinded the eyes of some good and honest disciples.”23 Parley Pratt concurred that “a false and lying spirit seemed to be creeping into the Church.”24
Uncertain how to handle these spiritual phenomena, the brethren joined with the Prophet in prayer in his translating room in Kirtland. Joseph then dictated a revelation (see D&C 50). Elder Pratt remembered the sublime experience of observing a revelation in process: “Each sentence was uttered slowly and very distinctly, and with a pause between each, sufficiently long for it to be recorded, by an ordinary writer, in long hand.”25
The Lord began by acknowledging that there were many “false spirits, which have gone forth in the earth, deceiving the world” (D&C 50:2–3) and that Satan was seeking to deceive the people that he might overthrow them. Therefore the Lord gave the brethren a key by which they could detect and deal with evil spirits:
“Wherefore, it shall come to pass, that if you behold a spirit manifested that you cannot understand, and you receive not that spirit, ye shall ask of the Father in the name of Jesus; and if he give not unto you that spirit, then you may know that it is not of God.
“And it shall be given unto you, power over that spirit; and you shall proclaim against that spirit with a loud voice that it is not of God” (D&C 50:31–32).

_________________


Et veillez à avoir la foi, l'espérance et la charité; alors vous abonderez toujours en bonnes oeuvres. En souvenir des Néphites qui présidaient aux cérémonies initiatiques dans la forêt de Zarahemla et qui en fut le secret... DAT ROSA MEL APIBUS
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Date d'inscription : 16/02/2007

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MessageSujet: Re: HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH   Dim 27 Jan - 3:44

The Law of Consecration


Now settled in Kirtland, the Prophet was eager to know the Lord’s will concerning the economic salvation of the Saints, many of whom were impoverished, particularly those who had left their homes in New York. His interest in the Lord’s economic program was aroused when he arrived in Ohio and discovered a group of about fifty people who had established a cooperative venture based on their interpretation of statements in the book of Acts, describing the early Saints as having all things in common (see Acts 2:44–45; 4:32). This group, known as “the family,” formerly followers of Sidney Rigdon, were members of the Church living on Isaac Morley’s farm near the village of Kirtland. When John Whitmer arrived in mid-January, he noted that what they were doing created many problems. For example, Heman Bassett took a pocket watch belonging to Levi Hancock and sold it. When asked why, Heman replied, “Oh, I thought it was all in the family.” Levi responded that he did not like such “family doing” and would not endure it any longer.26

In 1833 the Church purchased the Peter French farm, which eventually became the center of the Church in Kirtland, as the close up [above] and enlarged views [below] show.

The Prophet Joseph, however, realized the need to establish a more perfect system to meet the growing economic needs of the Church. Revenue was required to finance various Church undertakings, such as publishing revelations and missionary tracts. The Prophet was without a home for his family; Sidney Rigdon had lost his pastoral home and the economic support he had previously received from his congregation. Money, goods, and property were needed to help the poor and to assist immigrants who were sacrificing much to gather to Ohio, so Joseph inquired of the Lord.
A consecration deed of October 1832
On 4 February 1831 the Prophet received a revelation calling for Edward Partridge to serve as the first bishop of the Church, with instructions for him to devote his time to this calling (see D&C 41:9). Five days later another important revelation was received, embracing the law of the Church. It gave Bishop Partridge further instruction on his responsibilities and outlined the new economic system (see D&C 42).
One of the underlying principles of this new economic system was that the earth and everything on it belonged to the Lord, and man was a steward (see Psalm 24:1; D&C 104:13–14). Under the law of consecration members of the Church were asked to consecrate, or deed, all their property, both real and personal, to the bishop of the Church. He would then grant an “inheritance,” or stewardship, to an individual from the properties received. The size of the stewardship depended on the circumstances, wants, and needs of the family, as determined jointly by the bishop and the prospective steward (see D&C 42:32–33; 51:3). The family then administered its stewardship to the best of their ability. If they were industrious and successful, then at the year’s end they would have a net gain called a surplus (profit). Any surplus remaining beyond the wants and needs of the family was to be turned over to the storehouse to be used by the bishop to “administer to the poor and needy” (D&C 42:34). The law of consecration was designed to bring about relative economic equality and eliminate greed and poverty.27

_________________


Et veillez à avoir la foi, l'espérance et la charité; alors vous abonderez toujours en bonnes oeuvres. En souvenir des Néphites qui présidaient aux cérémonies initiatiques dans la forêt de Zarahemla et qui en fut le secret... DAT ROSA MEL APIBUS
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MessageSujet: Re: HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH   Dim 27 Jan - 3:45

Significant Revelations about the Law of Consecration and the United Order
DateWhere ReceivedWhere RecordedContent
4 Feb. 1831Kirtland, OhioD&C 41:9Edward Partridge appointed as first bishop.
9 Feb. 1831Kirtland, OhioD&C 42:30–34Law of consecration explained.
Feb. 1831Kirtland, OhioD&C 44:6Saints to administer to the poor according to law.
7 Mar. 1831Kirtland, OhioD&C 45:64–75Call to gather Zion: prospect of New Jerusalem.
Mar. 1831Kirtland, OhioD&C 48Saints who settled in Ohio to save money for inheritance in Zion.
May 1831Thompson, OhioD&C 51:3ffBishop Partridge to appoint portions (stewardships) according to family size, circumstances, wants, and needs. Storehouse to be established.
June 1831Kirtland, OhioD&C 56:16–20Rich and poor commanded to repent.
20 July 1831Jackson County, MissouriD&C 57Missouri appointed and consecrated as the land of inheritance and center place for Zion.
1 Aug. 1831Jackson County, MissouriD&C 58:1–9, 50–57Zion to come after much tribulation. Early immigrants honored to lay foundation of Zion. Lands to be purchased in Independence.
Aug. 1831Kirtland, OhioD&C 63:27–31Saints commanded to purchase lands with money and forbidden to obtain lands by blood.
12 Nov. 1831Kirtland, OhioD&C 70:1–8Elders appointed stewards over revelations. Surpluses to be consecrated to the Church.
4 Dec. 1831Kirtland, OhioD&C 72Newel K. Whitney appointed as second bishop of the Church in Kirtland. Further duties of bishop made known.
Mar. 1832Hiram, OhioD&C 78Saints commanded to establish storehouses in Zion and to further organize so Church would be independent.
26 April 1832Jackson County, MissouriD&C 82:11–12United order to be established to manage affairs in Zion and Kirtland.
30 Apr. 1832Independence, MissouriD&C 83Widows and orphans to be provided for by consecration of the Church to storehouses.
27 Nov. 1832Kirtland, OhioD&C 85To receive an inheritance in Zion a person must be willing to live the law of consecration.
25 June 1833Kirtland, OhioHistory of the Church, 1:364–65Letter from the Prophet to Bishop Edward Partridge on the size of a member’s stewardship.
2 Aug. 1833Kirtland, OhioD&C 97:10–21House (temple) in Zion (Jackson County) commanded. Zion is pure in heart.
6 Aug. 1833Kirtland, OhioD&C 98Saints commanded to follow the Constitution. Law of war and law of forgiveness given to Saints.
12 Oct. 1833Perrysburg, New YorkD&C 100:13–17Chastened Zion to be redeemed.
10 Dec. 1833Kirtland, OhioHistory of the Church, 1:453–56Letter from the Prophet to retain lands: petition to God to return Saints to land of inheritances.
16 Dec. 1833Kirtland, OhioD&C 101Reasons given for Saints’ expulsion from Jackson County. Zion not to be moved out of her place. Saints to rely on constitutional process.
24 Feb. 1834Kirtland, OhioD&C 103Saints to redeem Zion after tribulation. Zion to be redeemed by power.
23 Apr. 1834Kirtland, OhioD&C 104:47–66Separation of united order in Kirtland and Zion. Sacred treasury provided for.
22 June 1834Fishing River, MissouriD&C 105Redemption of Zion postponed until Saints are prepared, endowed, and numerous. United order dissolved until after Zion’s redemption.
1 Sept. 1835Kirtland, OhioHistory of the Church, 2:254Prophet’s letter to elders of the Church relating his June 1831 vision to go to western Missouri.
(Adapted from William O. Nelson, Ensign, Jan. 1979, p. 23.)

The revelations to Joseph Smith concerning the law of consecration began with the revelations in February 1831, soon after the Prophet Joseph arrived in Ohio. Over the next 4 1/2 years the Lord revealed many principles connected with the law of consecration. As can be seen in the accompanying chart, most of them were given in Kirtland.

_________________


Et veillez à avoir la foi, l'espérance et la charité; alors vous abonderez toujours en bonnes oeuvres. En souvenir des Néphites qui présidaient aux cérémonies initiatiques dans la forêt de Zarahemla et qui en fut le secret... DAT ROSA MEL APIBUS
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MessageSujet: Re: HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH   Dim 27 Jan - 3:45

The Church gradually learned more about the law of consecration as additional revelations were given. For example, the Prophet asked the Lord how the Church should acquire lands for the settlement of the incoming Saints. Those with property in Kirtland were commanded to impart freely of their lands. Other funds were to be consecrated to buy more land (see D&C 48:2–3). The bedraggled New York Saints began arriving in May, and it was necessary to get them settled. The responsibility rested with Bishop Partridge, so he sought direction from the Prophet. The bishop was instructed to begin apportioning stewardships to the immigrants (see D&C 51:3). “And let every man deal honestly, and be alike among this people, and receive alike, that ye may be one, even as I have commanded you” (v. 9).
Joseph Smith directed the Colesville immigrants to settle in Thompson, Ohio, a few miles east of Kirtland, on property owned by Leman Copley. The Saints in Seneca County were assigned to live on the Isaac Morley farm, where they erected log cabins and planted crops. Although Bishop Partridge tried to inaugurate the law of consecration in Thompson, conflicts prevented its full implementation. Because of the failure of his mission to the Shakers, Leman Copley broke his contract that allowed Latter-day Saints to occupy his farmland and ordered them off his property. When informed of the difficulties, the Prophet sought and obtained a revelation instructing Newel Knight, president of the Colesville branch, and others living on the Copley farm to “repent of all their sins, and . . . journey into the regions westward, unto the land of Missouri, unto the borders of the Lamanites” (D&C 54:3, 8). Shortly thereafter, at least fourteen families under Newel Knight’s direction left for the Missouri frontier.28
In the February revelation calling Edward Partridge to be bishop, the Lord had directed Joseph and Sidney to resume the inspired translation of the Bible. “And again, it is meet that my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., should have a house built, in which to live and translate” (D&C 41:7). Five days later the Prophet received the following instruction:
“Thou shalt ask, and my scriptures shall be given as I have appointed, and they shall be preserved in safety;
“And it is expedient that thou shouldst hold thy peace concerning them, and not teach them until ye have received them in full” (D&C 42:56–57). The pair diligently continued their work almost daily throughout the spring in a small house constructed for Joseph and Emma on Isaac Morley’s farm.
At this time Emma went into labor. She had not yet recovered from her illness and the arduous midwinter journey from New York. On 30 April she delivered twins, but they only lived three hours. She and Joseph had now lost all three children born to them. Coincidentally, twins were born on 1 May to Julia Murdock, but she died following their birth. Elder John Murdock was leaving on a mission about this time and consented when Joseph asked if he and Emma could adopt the children. Emma and Joseph’s grief was eased, and they willingly took the infants—a girl named Julia and a boy named Joseph—to raise as their own.
Cemetery across the street to the north of the Kirtland Temple. Louisa and Thaddeus, the twins born to Joseph and Emma Smith, are buried in this cemetery. Jerusha Smith (Hyrum’s wife) and Mary Duty Smith (grandmother of the Prophet) are also buried here.
General Conference in Ohio


The fourth general conference of the Church convened in a schoolhouse in Kirtland township on Friday, 3 June 1831. Many missionaries in Ohio returned for the meetings. Minutes record that sixty-three priesthood holders were in attendance.29 In Joseph Smith’s words, “The Lord displayed His power to the most perfect satisfaction of the Saints” at the conference.30 After the opening business, Joseph announced that the Lord wanted worthy elders “ordained to the high priesthood.”31 These were the first ordinations to the office of high priest in this dispensation. The Prophet ordained five brethren high priests; one of them, Lyman Wight, ordained several more in the same meeting. John Corrill and Isaac Morley were called to be counselors to Bishop Edward Partridge and were set apart to that calling by Lyman Wight.32
During the conference the Spirit was with the Prophet in an “unusual manner. And [he] prophesied that John the Revelator was then among the ten tribes of Israel . . . to prepare them for their return from their long dispersion.”33 The spirit of prophecy also rested upon Lyman Wight: “He said the coming of the Savior should be like the sun rising in the east, and will cover the whole earth.” He predicted that some of the brethren would suffer martyrdom for the sake of their religion and would seal their testimony of Christ with their blood.34 The Prophet Joseph, Harvey Whitlock, and Lyman Wight saw the heavens open and Jesus Christ sitting on the right hand of the Father. Lyman testified that he saw the Son of God making intercession to the Father for the Saints.35
Not all that happened at the conference was good. As it had happened in previous months, a manifestation of evil spirits appeared. Church historian John Whitmer related that “the devil took a notion, to make known his power.”36 Horrid noises shrieked through the meeting, and several men were thrown around violently by evil spirits. Harvey Green was thrown on the floor in convulsions. The Prophet laid hands upon him and cast out an evil spirit. Harvey Whitlock and John Murdock were bound so they could not speak. Joseph Smith said that all of this was a fulfillment of the scriptures stating that the “man of sin” would be revealed (see 2 Thessalonians 2:3). The Prophet saw the design of Satan and commanded him in the name of Christ to depart, which he did to the “joy and comfort” of those present.37 These early experiences in Kirtland served as a warning to all Saints to avoid tampering with evil spirits and to avoid excessive spiritual zeal.
Thus ended the first critical months of gathering the New York Saints to Ohio and establishing the headquarters of the Church there. While members experienced several encounters with evil spirits, they also received valuable instructions and saw the power of God overcome the power of the evil one. Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon resumed work on the inspired translation of the Bible. The eternal principles of the law of consecration were revealed, and further foundations were laid for the great latter-day missionary work.

_________________


Et veillez à avoir la foi, l'espérance et la charité; alors vous abonderez toujours en bonnes oeuvres. En souvenir des Néphites qui présidaient aux cérémonies initiatiques dans la forêt de Zarahemla et qui en fut le secret... DAT ROSA MEL APIBUS
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MessageSujet: Re: HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH   Dim 27 Jan - 3:46

Endnotes


1. In F. Mark McKiernan and Roger D. Launius, eds., An Early Latter Day Saint History: The Book of John Whitmer (Independence, Mo.: Herald Publishing House, 1980), p. 32–33.
2. In McKiernan and Launius, An Early Latter Day Saint History, p. 35.
3. See McKiernan and Launius, An Early Latter Day Saint History, p. 36.
4. See “Journal of John Murdock,” Nov. 1830–July 1859, LDS Historical Department, Salt Lake City.
5. In History of the Church, 1:146.
6. History of the Church, 1:146; this paragraph is derived from Milton V. Backman, Jr., The Heavens Resound: A History of the Latter-day Saints in Ohio, 1830–1838 (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1983), pp. 43–45.
7. Lucy Mack Smith, History of Joseph Smith, ed. Preston Nibley (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1958), p. 196.
8. Smith, History of Joseph Smith, pp. 200–205.
9. Previous two paragraphs derived from Backman, Heavens Resound, pp. 47, 49.
10. History of the Church, 1:146.
11. John Corrill, Brief History of the Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints (St. Louis: John Corrill, 1839), p. 13; see also Joseph Smith, “Try the Spirits,” Times and Seasons, 1 Apr. 1842, p. 747.
12. Corrill, Brief History of the Church, p. 13.
13. In Times and Seasons, 1 Apr. 1842, p. 747; spelling standardized.
14. History of the Church, 1:146.
15. In McKiernan and Launius, An Early Latter Day Saint History, p. 42; spelling standardized.
16. Corrill, Brief History of the Church, p. 13.
17. History of the Church, 1:158.
18. History of the Church, 1:158.
19. In History of the Church, 1:215–16; see also Millennial Star, 31 Dec. 1864, p. 834. For a confirmation of the spelling of “Alice Johnson,” see photo on file of her grave in Walnut Hill Cemetery in Council Bluffs, Iowa.
20. John Hayward, The Book of All Religions (Concord, N. H.: I. S. Boyd and E. W. Buswell, 1843), pp. 83–84.
21. See History of the Church, 1:167.
22. Parley P. Pratt, ed., Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, Classics in Mormon Literature series (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1985), p. 47.
23. In McKiernan and Launius, An Early Latter Day Saint History, p. 62; spelling and punctuation standardized.
24. Pratt, Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, p. 48; spelling, punctuation, and capitalization standardized.
25. Pratt, Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, p. 48.
26. Levi W. Hancock, “Levi Hancock Journal,” LDS Historical Department, Salt Lake City, p. 81.
27. Previous three paragraphs derived from Backman, Heavens Resound, p. 65.
28. Derived from Backman, Heavens Resound, p. 66. See also Larry C. Porter, “A Study of the Origins of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the States of New York and Pennsylvania, 1816–1831,” Ph.D. diss., Brigham Young University, 1971, pp. 299–303.
29. See Donald Q. Cannon and Lyndon W. Cook, eds., Far West Record: Minutes of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1830–1844 (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1983), pp. 6–7.
30. History of the Church, 1:175.
31. In McKiernan and Launius, An Early Latter Day Saint History, p. 66; punctuation and capitalization standardized.
32. See Cannon and Cook, Far West Record, p. 7.
33. In McKiernan and Launius, An Early Latter Day Saint History, p. 66; punctuation and capitalization standardized.
34. In McKiernan and Launius, An Early Latter Day Saint History, p. 67; punctuation standardized.
35. In McKiernan and Launius, An Early Latter Day Saint History, p. 67; see also “Levi Hancock Journal,” LDS Historical Department, Salt Lake City, pp. 91–92.
36. In McKiernan and Launius, An Early Latter Day Saint History, p. 71.
37. In McKiernan and Launius, An Early Latter Day Saint History, p. 71; see also History of the Church, 1:175.

_________________


Et veillez à avoir la foi, l'espérance et la charité; alors vous abonderez toujours en bonnes oeuvres. En souvenir des Néphites qui présidaient aux cérémonies initiatiques dans la forêt de Zarahemla et qui en fut le secret... DAT ROSA MEL APIBUS
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MessageSujet: Re: HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH   Dim 27 Jan - 3:46

CHAPTER NINE
Gathering to the Land of Zion



Time Line
Date

Significant Event
July 1831Colesville Saints arrived in Missouri
2 Aug. 1831Sidney Rigdon dedicated the land for a place of gathering
3 Aug. 1831Joseph Smith dedicated the temple site in Independence
June 1832First edition of the Evening and Morning Star
Zion! The holy city! The New Jerusalem! Enoch built a Zion (see Moses 7:19–21), Isaiah predicted a future Zion (see Isaiah 33:20; 52:1, 8), and John the Revelator envisioned Zion’s descent from heaven (see Revelation 21:2). The publication of the Book of Mormon helped clarify this dream because it said that America would be the place of the New Jerusalem (see Ether 13:2–3; 3 Nephi 20:22). The Book of Mormon thus fired the Saints with a zeal to know the time and place for the establishment of Zion. Only in Zion, the Saints believed, could they find protection from the desolation and tribulation soon to descend upon the wicked (see D&C 29:7–9; 45:65–71). In the writings of Enoch, revealed in December of 1830, the Saints found a concrete example in the righteous achievements of Enoch and his city: “And the Lord called his people Zion, because they were of one heart and one mind, and dwelt in righteousness; and there was no poor among them” (Moses 7:18).
Journeys to Missouri


Locating and establishing Zion became one of the prime objectives of the Latter-day Saints. In early 1831 curiosity about the location of the land of Zion began to grow. On the day following the fourth general conference of the Church (held 3 June 1831) a revelation directed Joseph Smith and other Church leaders to go to Missouri where the land of their inheritance would be revealed. In addition, thirteen pairs of missionaries were called to travel two by two, each pair taking a different route to Missouri, and to preach along the way (see D&C 52:3–8, 22–33; 56:5–7). Excitement reigned in and around Kirtland the next two weeks as the leaders and the elders prepared to leave. After all, the Lord gave them a promise:
“If ye are faithful ye shall assemble yourselves together to rejoice upon the land of Missouri, which is the land of your inheritance, which is now the land of your enemies.
“But, behold, I, the Lord, will hasten the city [the New Jerusalem] in its time, and will crown the faithful with joy and with rejoicing” (D&C 52:42–43).
It was during this period that Newel Knight asked the Prophet about the problem that had arisen on the consecrated lands in Thompson, Ohio. The Colesville branch members were directed to “take [their] journey into the regions westward, unto the land of Missouri, unto the borders of the Lamanites” (D&C 54:8). Hence, three different groups prepared to travel to Missouri and to meet at the western borders of that state—Joseph Smith’s party, the Colesville branch, and the missionaries.
[click for enlarged version]
[Bitmap] [PDF]
Map of Missouri (Kaw township, Kansas City, Missouri, was located in Jackson County. It embraced all that part of Jackson County lying west of the Big Blue River.)
While preparations went forward for the journey, a man who subsequently played an important role while the Church was in Missouri and afterward, William Wines Phelps, arrived from Canandaigua, New York, with his wife, Sally, and their children. Brother Phelps was thirty-nine years old and was a man of ability. As an editor of a partisan political newspaper, he was an experienced writer and printer. At one time he had been a candidate for the office of lieutenant governor of New York. He was converted to the gospel after purchasing a copy of the Book of Mormon. “By that book I found a key to the holy prophets; and by that book began to unfold the mysteries of God, and I was made glad. Who can tell his goodness, or estimate the worth of such a book?” he later wrote of the Book of Mormon in his conversion.1 Brother Phelps said he came to Kirtland to do the will of the Lord. A revelation directed to him said he was “called and chosen,” but first he was to be baptized and ordained, and then he was to accompany Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon to Missouri. Once in Missouri he was to assist Oliver Cowdery with the printing and with selecting and writing books for children to be used in the schools of the Church (see D&C 55:1–5).

_________________


Et veillez à avoir la foi, l'espérance et la charité; alors vous abonderez toujours en bonnes oeuvres. En souvenir des Néphites qui présidaient aux cérémonies initiatiques dans la forêt de Zarahemla et qui en fut le secret... DAT ROSA MEL APIBUS
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MessageSujet: Re: HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH   Dim 27 Jan - 3:47

William Wines Phelps (1792–1872) was born in Hanover, New Jersey, and died in Salt Lake City, Utah.
An active man with varied gifts and talents, he was an editor, a lawyer, a composer of hymns, a missionary, an educator, a legislator, a chaplain, and an ordinance worker in the Endowment House on Temple Square in Salt Lake City.
On 19 June, Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Edward Partridge, Martin Harris, Joseph Coe, William W. Phelps, and Sidney Gilbert and his wife Elizabeth finally began their nearly nine-hundred-mile journey from Kirtland to the western border of Missouri. At last they were fulfilling their long-awaited hope and were bound for the land of Zion, although they did not know at this point exactly where it was located. Journeying to Cincinnati, the Prophet’s company booked passage on a steamer headed down the Ohio River to its junction with the Mississippi and then on up into St. Louis. En route, they were joined by the Colesville branch under the direction of Newel Knight.2
The journey to Missouri was not an easy one. This was particularly true for the Colesville Saints who left Thompson, Ohio, carrying their belongings and provisions in twenty-four wagons.3 At Wellsville, Ohio, they left the wagons and traveled by steamboat down the Ohio River to the junction of the Mississippi River. They then traveled up the Mississippi River to St. Louis. At St. Louis, Newel Knight and his company and some of the Prophet’s companions elected to journey by steamboat on the Missouri River. This necessitated a wait of several days before passage could be secured. The Prophet and the others set out on foot and arrived in Independence about the middle of July,4 approximately ten days before those on the steamer arrived. Joseph described the journey as “long and tedious” and said they arrived only after “suffering many privations and hardships.”5 Newel Knight said the task of leading the Colesville Saints “required all the wisdom” he possessed.6
Almost every pair of elders was ready to leave Kirtland within two weeks of their call. Each set chose a different route, because they had been commanded to “not build upon another’s foundation, neither journey in another’s track” (D&C 52:33). Some pairs of elders enjoyed greater success than others did. Parley P. Pratt, who had returned from Missouri only a few months before, and his brother Orson spent most of the summer of 1831 preaching in Missouri, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. Although they “suffered the hardships incident to a new and, in many places, unsettled country,” they baptized many people and organized branches in the states they passed through. They did not arrive in western Missouri until September.7
Zebedee Coltrin (1804–87) was called and ordained as one of the seven presidents of the First Quorum of the Seventy when it was organized on 28 February 1835.
Two others who enjoyed success were Zebedee Coltrin and Levi Hancock. After leaving Kirtland, they headed south and west along the National Road toward Indianapolis, Indiana. Baptisms came slowly at first, but when they reached Winchester, Indiana, they found ready listeners. Levi wrote, “We continued to preach here and in the regions round about until we had raised a large branch of the Church.” They enjoyed similar results in Ward township, and “in a short time we had in both places about one hundred members.” Their presence aroused a group of local men who accosted them and ordered them to leave the area by ten o’clock the next morning.
Levi Hancock (1803–82) was called and ordained as one of the seven presidents of the First Quorum of the Seventy when it was organized on 28 February 1835.
The elders decided to stay and keep an eleven o’clock appointment. Some of the men who appeared for the meeting were among the ones who had threatened the missionaries. In his sermon Levi said that his father had fought in the Revolutionary War for the freedom his listeners then enjoyed and that his relative, John Hancock, was the first signer of the Declaration of Independence. Levi recorded, “After the meeting we went to the water and baptized seventeen out of that crowd who the day before were going to mob us.” The brethren expressed gratitude for God’s protection and help on that occasion. They arrived in Missouri sometime later, Zebedee in October, and Levi, compelled to lay over because of illness, in November.8
Typical of the profound but unrealized impact missionaries often have was that of the journey across southern Indiana made by twenty-three-year-old Samuel Smith and forty-one-year-old Reynolds Cahoon. They spent three days in Green County among Cahoon’s relatives, and on their return trip two and a half months later the pair stopped again in the area for over two weeks. Among the many who were converted at the time was John Patten, who had a twenty-four-year-old brother, David, living in Michigan. John wrote to David the following spring telling him of the restored gospel and saying that he had received the gift of the Holy Ghost. David related, “This caused my heart to leap for joy, and I resolved to go immediately and see for myself.”9 He was baptized by his brother in June of 1832 and three years later was called to be one of the Twelve Apostles in this dispensation.
Several elders made the journey more quickly. Lyman Wight and John Corrill, for example, completed the trip on foot in two months—from 14 June to 13 August.10 Few of the missionaries, however, arrived in time to participate in the conference held by the Prophet. Upon arrival in Independence, some of the single elders established themselves as permanent residents, while those with families in the East returned home. With this missionary labor, many people between Kirtland, Ohio, and Independence, Missouri, became acquainted with the Latter-day Saints and what they believed. Future missionaries would reap where these earliest elders had sown.

_________________


Et veillez à avoir la foi, l'espérance et la charité; alors vous abonderez toujours en bonnes oeuvres. En souvenir des Néphites qui présidaient aux cérémonies initiatiques dans la forêt de Zarahemla et qui en fut le secret... DAT ROSA MEL APIBUS
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MessageSujet: Re: HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH   Dim 27 Jan - 3:47

The case of Polly Knight illustrates the strong feelings of many members of the Church. Sister Knight, mother of Newel and a member of the Colesville branch, risked her life making the trip to Zion. Polly’s health was failing, but her anxiety to see the promised land was so great that she refused to be left behind in Ohio. Nor would she remain with friends along the route for rest and recuperation. Her son wrote, “Her only, or her greatest desire, was to set her feet upon the land of Zion, and to have her body interred in that land.” Fearing that she might die at any time on the journey, Newel left the boat on one occasion and went ashore to purchase lumber for a coffin. He later reported that “the Lord gave her the desire of her heart, and she lived to stand upon that land.”11 Polly died within two weeks of her arrival in the land of Zion and was the first Latter-day Saint to be buried in Missouri. But the Lord gave these consoling words: “Those that live shall inherit the earth, and those that die shall rest from all their labors, and their works shall follow them; and they shall receive a crown in the mansions of my Father, which I have prepared for them” (D&C 59:2).
Identifying the Land of Zion


The Prophet and his brethren knew that the glorious New Jerusalem would one day stand somewhere near their stopping place because revelation said that Zion would be “on the borders by the Lamanites” (D&C 28:9) and be located in Missouri (see D&C 52:2, 42). But where? Missouri’s western border was approximately three hundred miles long. “When will Zion be built up in her glory, and where will Thy temple stand?” the Prophet asked.12 The Lord’s reply, given 20 July 1831, was simple and direct:
“This land, which is the land of Missouri . . . is the land which I have appointed and consecrated for the gathering of the saints. . . .
“. . . Behold, the place which is now called Independence is the center place; and a spot for the temple is lying westward, upon a lot which is not far from the courthouse” (D&C 57:1, 3). Joseph Smith and the gathering Saints were elated that at last the exact location of the promised city of Zion was revealed to them.
The gathering Saints learned that the countryside in Jackson County was beautiful with rolling hills and valleys. The climate was invigorating, the air and water clean and healthful, and the vegetation lush and green. Two clear-water streams, the Big Blue and Little Blue rivers, drained the central highlands as they flowed quietly into the Missouri River on the north. Black walnut, hickory, elm, cherry, and oak trees fronted streambeds, and an attractive carpet of bluegrass on the prairie was ideal for raising stock. This region was still largely unsettled, with the county seat, Independence, having been established four years previous. The Prophet Joseph Smith was exuberant about the prospects for the area. He taught that Jackson County, Missouri, was the location of the Garden of Eden.13
The temple lot in Independence, Missouri, was dedicated by Joseph Smith on 3 August 1831. The ground where the Prophet stood to dedicate the temple lot is now owned by the Church of Christ (Temple Lot), or Hedrickites. Other portions of the original temple lot are owned by the LDS and RLDS faiths.
The building in the northeast corner of the temple lot is the headquarters of the Church of Christ (Temple Lot). In the lower left corner of the picture is the tabernacle of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, and in the bottom right corner is our Latter-day Saint visitors’ center.
The price of land and its ready availability also attracted the Saints. In 1831 whole sections of this undeveloped country could be purchased for $1.25 per acre. The Lord directed the brethren to purchase as much land as they were able (see D&C 57:3–5; 58:37, 49–52; 63:27), and Sidney Rigdon was appointed to “write a description of the land of Zion” (D&C 58:50) to be circulated among eastern Saints in a quest for funds. Sidney Gilbert was appointed “an agent unto the Church” to receive money from contributors and buy lands (D&C 57:6). Edward Partridge, already serving as a bishop, was commanded to divide the purchased land among the gathering Saints as “their inheritance” (D&C 57:7). The Lord also cautioned regarding Zion, “Let all these things be done in order. . . . And let the work of the gathering be not in haste, nor by flight” (D&C 58:55–56).
Dedication of the Land of Zion and Its Temple Site


Two important items required Joseph Smith’s attention in Missouri before he returned to Ohio: the dedication of the land as a place of gathering for the Saints and the dedication of the temple site itself. Both events were presided over by the Prophet Joseph Smith. At a special service on 2 August 1831, twelve men (in honor of the twelve tribes of Israel), five of them from the Colesville branch, laid the first log “as a foundation of Zion in Kaw township, twelve miles west of Independence.”14 Sidney Rigdon consecrated and dedicated the land unto the Lord. As part of the service he asked his listeners, “Do you pledge yourselves to keep the laws of God on this land, which you never have kept in your own lands? [The audience responded,] we do. Do you pledge yourselves to see that others of your brethren who shall come hither do keep the laws of God? [Those present again said,] we do. After [the dedicatory] prayer [Elder Rigdon] arose and said, I now pronounce this land consecrated and dedicated to the Lord for a possession and inheritance for the Saints (in the name of Jesus Christ having authority from him). And for all the faithful servants of the Lord to the remotest ages of time. Amen.”15
The dedication of the temple site in Independence took place the next day; again the services were simple but inspiring. Following the reading of Psalm 87, which extols the glory and majesty of Zion, a single stone, marking the southeast corner, was laid in place. Joseph Smith then dedicated the temple site by prayer. He reported that “the scene was solemn and impressive.”16
According to previous commandment (see D&C 52:2), the brethren convened a conference on 4 August in Kaw township, and the Prophet presided. Sidney Rigdon admonished the Saints to obey every requirement of heaven, and other business of the Church was transacted before the brethren disbanded and returned to Ohio.17

_________________


Et veillez à avoir la foi, l'espérance et la charité; alors vous abonderez toujours en bonnes oeuvres. En souvenir des Néphites qui présidaient aux cérémonies initiatiques dans la forêt de Zarahemla et qui en fut le secret... DAT ROSA MEL APIBUS
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Return to Ohio


The return journey (by canoe on the Missouri River) began on 9 August 1831. The company stopped the first night at Fort Osage, a government-maintained outpost that provided protection from marauding Indians. On the third day, W. W. Phelps saw a vision of “the destroyer in his most horrible power” riding upon the water. Other people present heard the noise of the evil one.18 This encounter left a strong impression on the travelers, some of whom feared for their safety.
The next morning Joseph received a revelation informing the elders that it was not necessary for the entire company to return to their homes in haste, particularly with many people on either side of the river “perishing in unbelief” (D&C 61:3). The waters, especially “these waters” (Missouri River), were declared to hold particular dangers for travelers; nevertheless, the Lord revealed, “It mattereth not unto me, after a little, if it so be that they fill their mission, whether they go by water or by land” (D&C 61:5, 22). The elders were to travel two by two and “declare the word among the congregations of the wicked” (D&C 61:33). The next day the brethren had a joyful meeting with several elders who were still on their way to the land of Zion. Joseph Smith received a revelation in their behalf urging them to continue on to Zion and to hold a meeting of rejoicing there (see D&C 62:1–4).
Joseph Smith and the others arrived in Kirtland late in August. He noted that their efforts to preach the gospel along the way were hindered because Satan had blinded the eyes of the people.19 He also reported to the Saints in Ohio the glorious events he and his brethren experienced in locating the land of Zion. At this time the Lord promised that the members in Ohio who contributed to the Saints in Zion would “receive an inheritance in this world, . . . and also a reward in the world to come” (D&C 63:48).
Continued Developments in Zion


Settling a frontier land was a new experience for most of the Saints who arrived from the East. Timber needed to be cut; ferries, bridges, mills, and dams had to be built; homes, out-buildings, and fences had to be constructed. Remembering the fall of 1831, Newel Knight wrote, “We were not accustomed to a frontier life, so things around us seemed new and strange and the work we had to do was of a different nature to that which had been done in the East. Yet we took hold with cheerful hearts, and a determination to do our best, and with all diligence went to work to secure food and prepare for the coming winter.”20 Parley P. Pratt commended the industry and optimism of a group of the Missouri Saints:
“They had arrived late in the summer, and cut some hay for their cattle, sowed a little grain, and prepared some ground for cultivation, and were engaged during the fall and winter in building log cabins, etc. The winter was cold, and for some time about ten families lived in one log cabin, which was open and unfinished, while the frozen ground served for a floor. Our food consisted of beef and a little bread made of corn, which had been grated into coarse meal by rubbing the ears on a tin grater. This was rather an inconvenient way of living for a sick person; but it was for the gospel’s sake, and all were very cheerful and happy. . . .
“. . . There was a spirit of peace and union, and love and good will manifested in this little Church in the wilderness, the memory of which will be ever dear to my heart.” Plainly it was not what Zion was but what it could become that buoyed up the Saints and lifted sagging spirits.21
The Evening and the Morning Star was a monthly newspaper first issued in Independence, Missouri, in June 1832. Fourteen issues were printed by William W. Phelps. The printing press was destroyed on 20 July 1833, stopping the publication.
Gradually funds began arriving from the East. By January 1832, Bishop Edward Partridge had received $2,694.70 and expended $2,677.83.22 He bought more land and superintended the establishment of a storehouse to receive and distribute the consecrations of the Saints. Church leaders in Missouri also began a printing enterprise as they had been commanded (see D&C 58:37). W. W. Phelps, who was called to be the printer and newspaper editor in Zion (see D&C 57:11–12), prepared to publish the Church’s first periodical, the Evening and Morning Star.
During the spring and summer of 1832, three to four hundred more Saints arrived in Missouri, where they received their inheritances from the bishop and began developing the land. An observer reported the intensity of their efforts and industry: “It was a strange sight indeed, to see four or five yoke of oxen turning up the rich soil. Fencing and other improvements went on in rapid succession. Cabins were built and prepared for families as fast as time, money and labor could accomplish the work; and our homes in this new country presented a prosperous appearance—almost equal to Paradise itself—and our peace and happiness, as we flattered ourselves, were not in a great degree deficient to that of our first parents in the garden of Eden, as no labor or painstaking was spared in the cultivation of flowers and shrubbery of a choice selection.”23
But if land was plentiful, skilled artisans and builders were scarce. The majority of residents in Zion were farmers and common laborers. What was needed were wheelwrights, blacksmiths, brick masons, and carpenters. A revelation specifying the need to send for workmen “of all kinds unto this land, to labor for the saints of God” did not bring swift response (D&C 58:54). Levi Hancock, a carpenter and resident of Zion, had more work than he could handle. His first project was building a combined home and printing office for W. W. Phelps.24
On 29 May 1832 a conference was held in the newly completed printing office for the purpose of dedicating the facility. Remarks were given by Oliver Cowdery and W. W. Phelps, and then Bishop Edward Partridge offered the dedicatory prayer.25
In June 1832, Elder Phelps began publishing the Evening and Morning Star. Over the next year, the Star published numerous revelations given to Joseph Smith that later were included in the Doctrine and Covenants. Since it was the only newspaper in the county and printed both national and international news, it was read by non-Mormons as well as by members of the Church. But the paper performed its greatest service for the Saints. Considerable attention was devoted in every issue to urging members to faithfulness in performing religious and family duties. In the first edition, W. W. Phelps urged the Saints: “The disciples should lose no time in preparing schools for their children, that they may be taught as is pleasing unto the Lord, and brought up in the way of holiness. Those appointed to select and prepare books for the use of schools, will attend to that subject, as soon as more weighty matters are finished. But the parents and guardians in the Church of Christ need not wait—it is all important that children, to become good should be taught so.”26 In the fall of 1832, a school, known as the Colesville School, was started near a large spring in Kaw township; Parley P. Pratt was the first teacher. Later that same year a second school was opened in Independence in a log schoolhouse erected for that purpose near the temple lot.27
Proper observance of the Lord’s Day received special emphasis in the Star. One of the first revelations received by Joseph Smith in Zion admonished the Saints to “go to the house of prayer and offer up thy sacraments upon my holy day . . . , and to pay thy devotions unto the Most High” (D&C 59:9–10).
Setting Sunday apart from other days and acknowledging it as a holy day was not the custom of the other residents of Jackson County. Reinforcing the message of this revelation, the Star offered this advice to the Saints: “Observe the Sabbath day to keep it holy. The Lord is not well pleased with a disciple that does any thing on that holy day that should be done on a laboring day. Nor should a disciple go to meeting one Sabbath here, and another there; let all that can, be strict to attend meeting in their own place. . . . Neither should the children be allowed to slip off and play, rather than meet where they may be trained up in the way they should go to be saved. We are the children of God, and let us not put off his law. When a saint works on the Sabbath, the world can reply: So do we. When the saints travel to do business on the Sabbath, the world can reply: So do we. When the saints go from one meeting to another to see and be seen, the world can reply: So do we. When the children of the saints play on the Sabbath, the world can reply: So do ours. Brethren, watch, that you may enter into the Lord’s sacred rest.”28
But the subject of the gathering received the most attention in the pages of the Star, and many articles were printed dealing with the matter. In July, Elder Phelps reminded migrating Saints that they were to bring a recommend from the bishop in Ohio or from three elders. They were also advised not to proceed to Zion without being told by one of the bishops that preparations had been made for them. Failure to observe this caution, he warned, “would produce pestilence” and cause confusion. “Moreover by being in haste, and forcing the sale of property, unreasonable sacrifices have been made, and although this is a day of sacrifice and tithing, yet to make lavish and unreasonable sacrifices, is not well pleasing in the sight of the Lord.”29 Later, Saints traveling to Zion were counseled to keep God’s commandments “in every point” and set such a good example that others would “be constrained to say: They act like the children of God.”30
By November 1832 there were 810 Saints in Missouri. Up to this point Zion was able to absorb its immigrants, and the Saints were pleased with the results. Editorials in the Star reflected their optimism, as future prospects for Zion appeared bright and promising.
Endnotes


1. In Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate, Sept. 1835, p. 178.
2. See History of the Church, 1:188; Emily M. Austin, Mormonism; or, Life among the Mormons (Madison, Wis.: M. J. Cantwell, 1882), pp. 63–64.
3. See Austin, Mormonism, p. 63.
4. See History of the Church, 1:188.
5. In Messenger and Advocate, Sept. 1835, p. 179; punctuation and capitalization standardized.
6. Scraps of Biography (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1883), p. 70.
7. Parley P. Pratt, ed., Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, Classics in Mormon Literature series (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1985), p. 54.
8. “The Life of Levi Hancock,” unpublished manuscript, Brigham Young University, Special Collections, Provo, pp. 54–64.
9. In “History of David W. Patten,” Millennial Star, 25 June 1864, p. 407.
10. In letter from Lyman Wight to Wilford Woodruff, 24 Aug. 1857, Lyman Wight papers, LDS Historical Department, Salt Lake City.
11. Scraps of Biography, p. 70; see also History of the Church, 1:99.
12. History of the Church, 1:189.
13. See George Q. Cannon, in Journal of Discourses, 11:336–37; Brigham Young, in Journal of Discourses, 8:195.
14. In History of the Church, 1:196.
15. In F. Mark McKiernan and Roger D. Launius, eds., An Early Latter Day Saint History: The Book of John Whitmer (Independence, Mo.: Herald Publishing House, 1980), p. 79; punctuation and capitalization standardized.
16. History of the Church, 1:199.
17. In History of the Church, 1:199; Journal History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 4 Aug. 1831, Historical Department, Salt Lake City.
18. In History of the Church, 1:203.
19. See History of the Church, 1:206.
20. Scraps of Biography, p. 72.
21. Pratt, Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, p. 56.
22. See Journal History of the Church, 27 Jan. 1832.
23. Austin, Mormonism, p. 67.
24. See Dennis A. Clegg, “Levi Ward Hancock, Pioneer, Soldier, Political and Religious Leader of Early Utah,” Master’s thesis, Brigham Young University, 1966, p. 20; Levi Hancock Diary, typescript, Brigham Young University Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, p. 67.
25. See Journal History of the Church, 29 May 1832.
26. “Common Schools,” The Evening and the Morning Star, June 1832, p. 6; spelling and punctuation standardized.
27. See H. S. Salisbury, “History of Education in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints,” Journal of History, July 1922 (Independence, Mo.: Herald Publishing House, 1922), p. 259.
28. “To the Saints in the Land of Zion, and Abroad,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Oct. 1832, p. 5.
29. “The Elders in the Land of Zion to the Church of Christ Scattered Abroad,” The Evening and the Morning Star, July 1832, p. 5.
30. “The Way of Journeying for the Saints of the Church of Christ,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Dec. 1832, p. 5.

_________________


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MessageSujet: Re: HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH   Dim 27 Jan - 3:49

CHAPTER TEN
Development of the Church in Ohio, 1831–34



Time Line
Date

Significant Event
Aug. 1831Joseph Smith returned from his first visit to Missouri
Oct.–Dec. 1831Ezra Booth attacked the Church in the press
1 Nov. 1831A conference of elders voted to publish the Book of Commandments
4 Dec. 1831Newel K. Whitney called as bishop in Ohio
25 Jan. 1832Joseph Smith sustained as President of High Priesthood
16 Feb. 1832Vision of three degrees of glory (D&C 76) received
24 Mar. 1832Mob tarred and feathered Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon
Apr. 1832Prophet made a second visit to Missouri
25–27 Dec. 1832“Prophecy on War” (D&C 87) and “Olive Leaf” (D&C 88) revealed
Jan. 1833School of the Prophets opened in Kirtland
27 Feb. 1833Word of Wisdom (D&C 89) revealed
8 Mar. 1833Revelation announced First Presidency had “keys of the kingdom” (D&C 90:3)
18 Dec. 1833Joseph Smith, Sr., ordained as first patriarch
17 Feb. 1834Kirtland high council appointed
The early Kirtland years were one of the most significant periods in the history of the Church, although at the time few members comprehended the importance of what they were experiencing. Wilford Woodruff recounted that in April 1834 the Prophet Joseph Smith told a group of priesthood holders: “You know no more concerning the destinies of this Church and kingdom than a babe upon its mother’s lap. You don’t comprehend it. . . . It is only a little handful of Priesthood you see here tonight, but this Church will fill North and South America—it will fill the world.”1 Even so, the limited vision they possessed fired the Saints’ souls, and the infant Church grew, developed, and matured.
The northeastern Ohio area
[click for scalable version]
Not only was Joseph concerned about establishing the Church, but like other Saints he and his wife, Emma, were struggling to set up a regular household. In fact they would not have a permanent home during their first two years in Ohio. In September 1831, just two weeks after Joseph returned from his journey to Missouri, he moved his family to Hiram, Ohio, about thirty miles southeast of Kirtland. The Prophet and his family stayed with the John Johnson family in Hiram for about six months. During that time he made rapid progress on the translation of the Bible with the able assistance of Sidney Rigdon.
Opposition and Apostasy


From the outset the Church had an unpopular public image that was added to by apostates and nurtured by the circulation of negative stories and articles in the press. People gave many reasons for apostatizing. For example, Norman Brown left the Church because his horse died on the trip to Zion. Joseph Wakefield withdrew after he saw Joseph Smith playing with children upon coming down from his translating room. Symonds Ryder lost faith in Joseph’s inspiration when Ryder’s name was misspelled in his commission to preach. Others left the Church because they experienced economic difficulties.
The John Johnson home located in Hiram, Ohio. The Prophet Joseph Smith received many revelations here. One of the greatest doctrinal revelations given in this dispensation, known as the Vision (D&C 76), was received in this home.
Ezra Booth, a former Methodist minister, was an influential apostate during this period. He joined the Church in May 1831 when he saw the Prophet heal the lame arm of Alice Johnson. Booth, along with other missionaries, was called and sent to Missouri in the summer of 1831 (see D&C 52:3, 23). Upset about having to walk and preach the entire journey, he began to criticize and find fault with the leadership of the Church. He was disappointed to arrive in Missouri and not experience manifestations of the Spirit, such as miracles and the gift of tongues, which he expected would increase his religious fervor. He returned to Hiram, Ohio, full of suspicion and faultfinding. The Prophet observed that Booth had become disappointed “when he actually learned that faith, humility, patience, and tribulation go before blessing, and that . . . he must become all things to all men, that he might peradventure save some.”2 Booth arrived in Hiram on 1 September, and was excommunicated five days later. Soon he and Symonds Ryder publicly renounced their faith at a Methodist camp meeting at Shalersville, a few miles southwest of Hiram.
Hoping to impede the progress of the Latter-day Saints in Ohio, critics in Portage County sought to capitalize on Booth’s influence and encouraged him to publicize his criticisms. Booth believed that his conversion had influenced others to accept the gospel, and he wanted to reverse that effect as well as dissuade others from joining the Church. He published nine letters in the Ohio Star in Ravenna, from 13 October to 8 December 1831, detailing his objections to the Church.
These letters posed a challenge to the Church. They were circulated extensively and later became a major section of the first anti-Mormon book, Eber D. Howe’s Mormonism Unvailed, published in 1834. Late in 1831 a number of missionaries were called to counteract Booth’s influence, and in December the Lord called Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon to join the effort. They were to meet their enemies “both in public and in private,” and the Lord promised them that “no weapon that is formed against you shall prosper” (D&C 71:7, 9). The two men labored about five weeks, and Joseph reported that their work “did much towards allaying the excited feelings which were growing out of the scandalous letters then being published.”3
Tarring and Feathering of Joseph Smith by C.C.A. Christensen, a pioneer artist

_________________


Et veillez à avoir la foi, l'espérance et la charité; alors vous abonderez toujours en bonnes oeuvres. En souvenir des Néphites qui présidaient aux cérémonies initiatiques dans la forêt de Zarahemla et qui en fut le secret... DAT ROSA MEL APIBUS
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MessageSujet: Re: HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH   Dim 27 Jan - 3:50

Nevertheless, the negative influence of Booth and Ryder continued. Violence erupted in Hiram on the night of 24 March 1832 when a mob of twenty-five or thirty, under the influence of whiskey, attacked the households of Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon. Having stayed up late to care for his adopted infant son, who was sick with the measles, Joseph had finally fallen asleep on a trundle bed. The next thing he knew he was being dragged out the door, amid Emma’s screams. He struggled but was overpowered. The mob ridiculed him, choked him, stripped him, and tried to force a vial of acid into his mouth, which chipped one of his teeth, causing him thereafter to speak with a slight whistle. One man scratched him with “his nails like a mad cat and then muttered out: ‘G—d—ye, that’s the way the Holy Ghost falls on folks!’” They daubed tar all over his body, covered him with feathers, and left him suffering. When Joseph finally made his way back to the house, Emma fainted at the sight of the tar, which she mistook for blood. Friends spent the night cleaning off the tar, and the next day, Sunday, Joseph preached a sermon that was attended by some of the mob from the previous night, and he baptized three people.4
During the night of the incident, the door to the Johnson home was left open; the infant, Joseph (formerly Murdock) Smith, caught cold and died five days later. During that same night Elder Rigdon was dragged by his heels from his home, and his head was severely lacerated by the rough, frozen ground. He was delirious for several days.5
Visit to Missouri in 1832


Shortly after the mobbing, the Lord instructed the Prophet to return again to Missouri (see D&C 78:9). Some of the Jackson County Saints were jealous because Joseph Smith lived in Ohio rather than on the frontier. The Lord explained that Joseph should go to Missouri and counsel with the Saints because Satan was seeking to use the situation to “turn their hearts away” (D&C 78:10). Another reason for visiting Missouri was to coordinate the operation of the Church’s storehouses in Kirtland and Independence. In March 1832 a revelation established that there were to be storehouses in both of these areas (see D&C 78). The profits of the Independence store were to assist the migrating Saints. One of the items of business in Missouri was to unite the two firms and consolidate the economic activities of the Church.
The stay in Missouri was short but productive. On 26 April, a “general council” sustained Joseph as President of the High Priesthood, as he had been ordained at a similar conference at Amherst, Ohio, on 25 January 1832. In the afternoon session, Joseph was instructed in a revelation (D&C 82) to combine the economic orders in Kirtland and Independence into the United Firm so they could be “independent of every encumbrance beneath the celestial kingdom, by bonds and covenants of mutual friendship, and mutual love.”6 The leaders agreed that the firm would regulate the business of the Church and authorized Newel K. Whitney, the bishop in Ohio, to negotiate a fifteen thousand dollar loan to purchase goods for the company. Joseph said that when he and his party arrived in Kaw township, the Saints received them with “a welcome only known by brethren and sisters united as one in the same faith. . . . It is good to rejoice with the people of God.”7
Watch the Prophet Joseph Smith gave to Newel K. Whitney and a letter opener he gave to Newel K. and Elizabeth Whitney
Joseph Smith, Newel K. Whitney, and Sidney Rigdon left for home by stagecoach early in May. Near Greenville, Indiana, the horses were frightened and broke and ran. Bishop Whitney jumped from the coach, but his coat tangled and his foot caught in one of the wheels, breaking his leg in several places. Joseph and Sidney leaped from the stagecoach unhurt. The Prophet remained with Bishop Whitney a month in Greenville while Sidney traveled on to Kirtland with the news. During this time Joseph often enjoyed the solitude of walking in the woods. He wrote to Emma that he visited a grove outside of town nearly every day to pray and meditate: “I have called to mind all the past moments of my life and am left to mourn and shed tears of sorrow for my folly in suffering the adversary of my soul to have so much power over me as he has had in times past, but God is merciful and has forgiven my sins.”8
After dinner one day, the Prophet took sick and vomited so severely that he dislocated his jaw. Bishop Whitney administered to him, and he was healed immediately, although the effects of the poison caused him to lose some of his hair. The Prophet decided it was best to move on, assuring Bishop Whitney that their journey would proceed smoothly. Joseph explained: I “told him if he would agree to start for home in the morning, we would take a wagon to the river, about four miles, and there would be a ferry-boat in waiting which would take us quickly across, where we would find a hack which would take us directly to the landing, where we should find a boat, in waiting, and we would be going up the river before ten o’clock.”9 The pair traveled just as Joseph had predicted and arrived in Kirtland early in June.
For the next several months, the Prophet again occupied most of his time on the inspired translation of the Bible, except for a hurried journey in the fall with Bishop Whitney to Albany, New York City, and Boston, where they took care of business as well as warning the inhabitants to repent and accept the gospel (see D&C 84:114–15). They arrived back in Kirtland on 6 November 1832, just hours after Emma had given birth to her fourth and first surviving child, Joseph Smith III.10
Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball later arrived in Kirtland from upstate New York; they had recently joined the Church and were anxious to meet the Prophet. In a gathering that evening, Brigham spoke in tongues while praying. While answering questions about the gift, Joseph Smith prophesied that one day Brigham Young would preside over the Church.11
During the spring and summer of 1833 the Prophet devoted much of his time to translating the Bible, teaching the School of the Prophets, and beginning construction on the Kirtland Temple.
Joseph Smith’s Mission to Canada


In the fall of 1833, Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon went to Upper Canada at the urging of Freeman Nickerson, a recent convert, who convinced the brethren that his sons who lived there would be receptive to the gospel. The journey was historic. While it was not the first time missionaries had been in Canada (brief excursions had been made in 1830, 1832, and 1833), Joseph’s visit gave the work there considerable spark. The Prophet developed such a love for the Canadians that he visited them again in 1837 and saw to it that missionary work there continued throughout his life.
Church history sites in Upper Canada

_________________


Et veillez à avoir la foi, l'espérance et la charité; alors vous abonderez toujours en bonnes oeuvres. En souvenir des Néphites qui présidaient aux cérémonies initiatiques dans la forêt de Zarahemla et qui en fut le secret... DAT ROSA MEL APIBUS
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MessageSujet: Re: HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH   Dim 27 Jan - 3:50

In Mount Pleasant, Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon baptized twelve people, including the sons of Elder Nickerson and their families, who became the nucleus of the branch there.
Lydia Bailey was one of those in the Eleazer Freeman Nickerson household in Mount Pleasant who responded to the gospel with all of her heart. She was raised in Massachusetts and New York and at age sixteen married Calvin Bailey. Because he drank, her life with him was unhappy. After three years of marriage, he abandoned her, her daughter, and the child she was expecting. Her son died at birth, and less than a year later her daughter also died. At age twenty Lydia went to Canada with the Nickersons to recover her emotional health. There she met Joseph Smith, and he told her, “You shall yet be a savior to your father’s house.” Lydia later moved to Kirtland, where she met and married Newel Knight, a widower. Many years later, in Utah, Lydia did the ordinance work for seven hundred of her kindred dead in the St. George Utah Temple, thus fulfilling Joseph’s prophecy.12
Joseph’s journal of this mission gives us a glimpse into his character. Like other missionaries, he worried about his family and alternately faced disappointments and successes. Joseph frequently recorded brief prayers in his journal. For example, as he began the trip on 14 October 1833, he wrote, “Lord, be with us on our journey.” In his record of 22 October he noted, “We hope that great good may yet be done in Canada which, O Lord, grant for thy name’s sake.” On 23 October, as he referred to the superstitious people they preached to, he prayed, “Oh God, establish thy word among this people.”13
The Upper Canadian mission was one of fourteen missions undertaken by Joseph Smith during the Kirtland era. He left Ohio at least once each year between 1831 and 1838 to labor as a full-time missionary while serving as President of the Church.
The Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible


Joseph Smith’s inspired translation of the Bible was one of the pivotal developments of his work as a prophet and has had a profound influence on the Church. Joseph’s knowledge about the principles of the gospel and God’s work with his ancient prophets and people increased immensely through this project. He considered it an important “branch” of his calling and labored diligently at it. When he and Sidney Rigdon were at home in Ohio, this was their major preoccupation. The frequency with which the “translation” is referred to in the revelations and historical documents of the period underscores the importance of this project. The Prophet first began this work in New York in 1830. When he arrived in Ohio in February 1831, he continued his work in the Old Testament with the help of his scribe, Elder Rigdon. But early in March, Joseph was commanded to work on the translation of the New Testament (see D&C 45:60–61). During the next two years Joseph and Sidney continued their work on both the New and the Old Testaments. They optimistically pronounced their work finished on 2 July 1833.14
Flyleaf of Joseph Smith’s King James Version of the Bible. It contains the following information in Joseph Smith’s handwriting:
“The Book of the Jews And the property of Joseph Smith Junior and Oliver Cowdery
“Bought October the 8th 1829, at Egbert B. Grandins Book Store Palmyra Wayne County New York
“Price $3.75
“Holiness to the Lord”
Courtesy of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
In addition to the great legacy left to the Church in the Joseph Smith Translation (JST) itself, numerous revelations now recorded in the Doctrine and Covenants came to the Prophet while he worked on the inspired translation. The study of the Bible stimulated him to inquire of the Lord about significant doctrinal and organizational matters. Doctrine and Covenants sections 76, 77, and 91 have direct links with the translation effort, “and probably much of the information in sections 74, 84, 86, 88, 93, 102, 104, 107, 113, and 132.” It is probable that many others are indirectly connected.15
Origins of the Doctrine and Covenants


The revelations the Prophet Joseph Smith received contained timely instruction from the Lord concerning the doctrines and government of the Church. Three months after the organization of the Church, the Prophet and John Whitmer arranged and copied the revelations received up to that time. Occasionally Joseph gave copies to friends, missionaries, and other Church members, but most people did not have access to the revelations. The establishment of a printing press in Missouri in 1831, however, provided the opportunity to publish them. This matter was the principal subject at a series of conferences in Hiram, Ohio, in early November 1831. By then more than sixty revelations had been recorded. On 1 November it was agreed to have William W. Phelps print ten thousand copies of the revelations in book form. (The number of copies to be printed was later reduced to three thousand.) The title of the book, the Book of Commandments, was derived from a revelation given in the same conference. The Lord designated the revelation as a “preface unto the book of my commandments” (D&C 1:6).
The Book of Commandments
Later that day a few brethren made negative comments about the language and style of the revelations. Therefore, the Lord in a revelation challenged the critics to select the “least” of the commandments and to have the wisest man among them try to write a better one (see D&C 67:4–9). William E. McLellin, a schoolteacher and recent convert, presumptuously accepted the challenge. The Prophet said that McLellin, “as the wisest man, in his own estimation, having more learning than sense, endeavored to write a commandment like unto one of the least of the Lord’s, but failed; it was an awful responsibility to write in the name of the Lord.” This experience renewed the brethren’s faith in the revelations, and they agreed “to bear testimony of their truth to all the world.”16 Subsequently, the Prophet wrote that the revelations were “the foundation of the Church in these last days.”17
Further conference sessions completed the details preparatory to the publication of the book. On 3 November 1831 an “appendix” (later D&C 133) was added to the revelations. Another session on 8 November directed Joseph Smith, under the direction of the Holy Ghost, to correct the errors he discovered in the written copy of the revelations. On 12 November the Lord called John Whitmer, the Church historian and recorder, to accompany Oliver Cowdery who had been commanded to carry the manuscripts to Missouri for printing (see D&C 69). Another revelation given that day called six brethren “to be stewards over the revelations and commandments” (D&C 70:3). This group became known as the “Literary Firm.”18
On 20 November 1831, Oliver and John started for Missouri. They arrived in Independence on 5 January 1832 after a long, cold journey. In June, Elder Phelps began publishing extracts from the revelations in the Evening and Morning Star and setting the type for the Book of Commandments.
Developments in Church Organization


The rapid growth19 of the infant Church required a substantial expansion of its organization. In keeping with the principle of giving revelation “line upon line, precept upon precept” (D&C 98:12), the Lord directed the establishment of Church government as required. Immediately after the Church was organized in 1830, men were called to serve in the ministry and were ordained to one of four priesthood offices: deacon, teacher, priest, or elder. Other priesthood offices were added the following year.
Edward Partridge (1793–1840). The Lord compared Edward to Nathanael of old (see D&C 41:11).
The first new office to be added was that of bishop. Edward Partridge was appointed to this calling in February of 1831 (see D&C 41:9). His duties, however, were not revealed all at once. The earliest revelations pertaining to the office of bishop gave him responsibility for implementing the law of consecration. Specifically he was to receive consecrations, assign stewardships, and maintain a storehouse for the relief of the poor. He was also to be responsible for buying land and for building houses of worship (see D&C 42:30–35; 51:1–3). As these duties grew, agents were called to assist the bishop in receiving monies, purchasing property, and conducting secular business (see D&C 51:8; 53:4; 58:49; 84:113).
Further revelations also assigned judicial responsibilities to the bishop. At first elders’ courts handled Church discipline, with the bishop present if possible (see D&C 42:82). By August 1831, the bishop’s assignment as common judge in Israel was made more specific. The bishop was “to judge his people by the testimony of the just, and by the assistance of his counselors, according to the laws of the kingdom which are given by the prophets of God” (D&C 58:18). Even so, elders’ courts, and later high councils, carried much of the judicial load in Kirtland. To this point the bishop did not have the pastoral duties, which later became an important part of a bishop’s responsibilities.
After Edward Partridge moved to Missouri, a second bishop, Newel K. Whitney, was called in December 1831. He was to determine the worthiness of members living in Ohio and to provide certificates to the bishop in Zion attesting that they had been members in good standing before they moved to Missouri.

_________________


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MessageSujet: Re: HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH   Dim 27 Jan - 3:52

Bishop’s certificate of Edward Partridge

The roles of the President of the Church and later the First Presidency were defined in the early Kirtland years. At the meeting where the Church was organized, Joseph Smith was called by revelation “a seer, a translator, a prophet, an apostle of Jesus Christ, an elder of the church” (D&C 21:1), and the Lord specified that he was the only one authorized to receive revelations for the whole Church (see D&C 28:1–6). At the conference of 3–6 June 1831 several brethren were ordained to the office of high priest for the first time. Subsequently on 25 January 1832 at a conference in Amherst, Ohio, Joseph was ordained “President of the High Priesthood.”20
For nearly two years Joseph presided over the Church without counselors. Early in March 1832 he was authorized to appoint counselors for the first time. On 8 March, Joseph selected Jesse Gause and Sidney Rigdon from among the recently ordained high priests. On 15 March a revelation announced that this Presidency held the “keys of the kingdom” (D&C 81:2). Jesse Gause fell away from the Church in 1832, so the First Presidency was reorganized on 18 March 1833, and Frederick G. Williams was called as the new counselor.
The calling of Patriarch to the Church was one of Joseph Smith’s responsibilities. Frequently individuals wanted him personally to ask the Lord for a revelation for them, but as the Church grew, this became impractical. On 18 December 1833, while giving blessings to his family, the Prophet was inspired to call and ordain his father as the first Patriarch to the Church. From that time until his death in 1840, Joseph Smith, Sr., traveled among the branches, holding special blessing meetings where he gave many faithful Saints their patriarchal blessings. In addition to providing revelation to individuals, the patriarchal blessings also identified the person’s lineage in the house of Israel.
Joseph Smith, Sr. (1771–1840)

The first stake of Zion was organized in Kirtland on 17 February 1834. Initially the three members of the First Presidency were appointed to serve as the presidency of this stake. With the organization of the high council in Kirtland at the same time, a second level of Church judiciary was initiated. According to the minutes, the high council’s purpose was to settle “important difficulties which might arise in the church, which could not be settled by the church or the bishop’s council” (D&C 102:2). It was to be a court of original jurisdiction on difficult cases and an appellate court. Decisions of the high council could also be appealed to the First Presidency. A second high council was organized in Clay County, Missouri, on 3 July 1834.
Doctrinal Revelations


Nearly one-third of the revelations in the Doctrine and Covenants were received between August 1831 and April 1834. The revelations opened new vistas of gospel understanding and provided the Saints with valuable guidelines for their daily conduct. On 16 February 1832, for example, Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon received a revelation in direct answer to a question that had arisen during their work on the Bible. A vision of the Father and the Son, Satan’s fall, the sons of perdition, and the kingdoms of glory enormously expanded their understanding of the plan of salvation.
During the fall of 1832, when a number of missionaries had returned from their labors and were enjoying a conference, the Lord gave an important revelation on the priesthood (D&C 84). It began with a statement that the New Jerusalem and the temple would be built in Missouri. In addition to giving a brief history of the descent of the priesthood through the ancient patriarchs and prophets, the Lord explained that the greater, or Melchizedek, priesthood has the authority to administer the gospel ordinances (see v. 19) and that the lesser, or Aaronic, priesthood administered the ordinances of the “preparatory gospel” (see v. 26). The revelation went on to explain that recipients of the priesthood received it by an “oath and covenant” (v. 40), which if adhered to faithfully would bring eternal life. Information was also given about the light of Christ and the signs that follow the preaching of the gospel. Instructions to missionaries and other ministers of the gospel completed the revelation.
The Lord also spoke on war and peace. On Christmas day of 1832, he gave a revelation that contained the famous prophecy of the American Civil War. It was to be the beginning of wars that would “shortly come to pass” and would eventually be “poured out upon all nations” (D&C 87:1–2). Saints were warned that as war engulfed the globe they would be safe only if they would “stand ye in holy places, and be not moved” (v. 8). Two days later Joseph Smith received a revelation. He called it “the Olive Leaf which we have plucked from the tree of Paradise, the Lord’s message of peace to us.”21 This revelation was not an explanation, however, of how men could solve their domestic and international difficulties. Rather, it diverted the Saints’ attention from their petty concerns and focused it on such eternal matters as preparing for the Lord’s coming and living the law leading to exaltation in the celestial kingdom.
This revelation also directed the formation of a “school of the prophets” to prepare the brethren to better serve one another (see D&C 88:118–41). The school began meeting the end of January 1833 in an upstairs room above the Whitney store. These meetings provided the setting for many remarkable spiritual experiences and in-depth discussions of gospel principles.
[click for enlarged version]

_________________


Et veillez à avoir la foi, l'espérance et la charité; alors vous abonderez toujours en bonnes oeuvres. En souvenir des Néphites qui présidaient aux cérémonies initiatiques dans la forêt de Zarahemla et qui en fut le secret... DAT ROSA MEL APIBUS
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MessageSujet: Re: HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH   Dim 27 Jan - 3:53

Floor plan of the Newel K. Whitney store

Dietary matters were a concern during the early years of the Church. For example, a nearby Shaker colony adhered to an unusually stringent dietary code forbidding the eating of meat. In March 1831 the Lord told Joseph that this Shaker doctrine was not ordained of God because “the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air, and that which cometh of the earth, is ordained for the use of man for food and for raiment” (D&C 49:19). A revelation given in Missouri during August of the same year added the caution that men were to use these things “with judgment, not to excess” (D&C 59:20).
During the winter of 1833, the School of the Prophets frequently met to discuss the affairs of the Church; as was the custom of the time, many of the brethren chewed or smoked tobacco. As Brigham Young recalled, Joseph Smith became concerned at having to instruct the school “in a cloud of tobacco smoke,” and Emma complained at having to clean the room after the brethren. This caused the Prophet to inquire of the Lord concerning the use of tobacco. In answer he received the revelation now known as the Word of Wisdom (see D&C 89).22 The revelation forbade the use of wine, strong drink, tobacco, and “hot drinks,” which were understood to be coffee and tea; it also stressed the use of wholesome vegetables, fruits, and grains. The Saints were promised if they followed this Word of Wisdom, they would have health and strength, “find wisdom and great treasures of knowledge,” and “the destroying angel shall pass by them” (D&C 89:19, 21).
In 1833 the Lord also molded Latter-day Saint political thought, especially regarding the nature of the Constitution of the United States. Two principles were fundamental. The Constitution was an inspired document written “by the hands of wise men . . . raised up unto this very purpose” (D&C 101:80). It also had global application. The Lord explained that constitutional law, which guarantees rights and freedoms, “belongs to all mankind, and is justifiable before me” (D&C 98:5). He reaffirmed that it was established to maintain the “rights and protection of all flesh, according to just and holy principles; That every man may act in doctrine and principle . . . according to the moral agency which I have given unto him, that every man may be accountable for his own sins in the day of judgment” (D&C 101:77–78). Joseph Smith best expressed the Saints’ attitudes toward the Constitution when he said it is “a glorious standard; it is founded in the wisdom of God. It is a heavenly banner. . . . It is like a great tree under whose branches men from every clime can be shielded from the burning rays of the sun.”23
Kirtland, the Hub of Missionary Work


As the headquarters of the Church, Kirtland was the center of missionary work during this period. It was near the main routes of transportation and contained the largest concentration of Church membership. Kirtland was the point of departure for missions to Canada, the Northeast, the Mid-Atlantic States, the Midwest, and the South. The state of Ohio itself was saturated with missionaries who crossed the state on their way to or from other fields of labor. Frequently those unable to go on longer missions or those home during the winter months visited local communities.
Typically missionaries proselyted among their relatives or in the communities they had migrated to Ohio from. Missions ranged in length from a few days to a year or more, although most were fairly short. Normally there was a rhythmic pattern as missionaries went out for a few weeks or months to preach, returned to Kirtland for rest and recuperation, and then went out again on another mission.24 Often, as was the case with Orson Pratt, Orson Hyde, Erastus Snow, Brigham Young, and others, this pattern repeated itself many times during the first decade of their lives in the Church.
Before the organization of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and the First Quorum of the Seventy in 1835, the direction of missionary work rested with the local priesthood quorums, the high council, or the Presidency of the Church. Some effort was made to improve the training of the missionaries. The School of the Prophets and the School of the Elders played a key role in this training. In the School of the Elders, Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon presented lectures on faith, and the missionaries were encouraged to memorize them so they could teach the precepts of the gospel logically and systematically. A revelation commanded the brethren to study geography, geology, history, prophecy, culture, war, and language—all “that ye may be prepared in all things when I shall send you again to magnify the calling whereunto I have called you, and the mission with which I have commissioned you” (D&C 88:80).
Although going from door to door was a common practice, missionaries often found their best success in small groups in the homes of the receptive. Many missionaries preferred public meetings. They used any available space where they could preach, such as a barn, school, church, home, or courthouse. They spoke about prophecy, the Book of Mormon, the signs of the times, spiritual gifts, the Apostasy, and the Restoration, but the missionaries were cautioned to avoid the mysteries of the gospel in their teaching. Ordinarily an elder preached and then gave “liberty” to anyone who desired to respond to his message. This technique put the local clergy on the spot because silence on their part would be interpreted as consent or defeat. Therefore, it frequently generated discussions or debates on the gospel. The missionary companion then exhorted the congregation to accept baptism.25
Missionaries often encountered rejection, hostility, or indifference. Their disappointment was particularly poignant when a disbeliever was a member of the missionary’s family. In 1832, Orson Hyde visited his relatives in New York and New Hampshire to teach them the gospel. His brother Asahel remained unmoved by the gospel message, and Orson recorded that they separated “with hearts full of grief.” Three months later he tried with his sister and her husband, but they too rejected his message. He wrote, “We took our things and left them, and tears from all eyes freely ran, . . . but it was like piercing my heart; and all I can say is ‘The Will of the Lord Be Done.’”26
The clergy were particularly vehement and sometimes ingenious in their opposition to the missionaries. In 1835 a Baptist deacon passed a pop-gun and ammunition through a window to a friend listening to a missionary sermon by Elder George A. Smith. Elder Smith wrote that the man shot “wads of tow [short broken fiber from flax that is used for yarn] at me all the time I was preaching. He was an excellent shot with the pop-gun, [and] most of the wads hit me in the face. I caught several of them in my hands. Many of them [the audience] were tickled, but some of them paid good attention. I finished my discourse without noticing the insult.”27
Despite the harassment, these early missionaries, inspired by faith and testimony, were remarkably successful. They remained undaunted by constant doses of opposition, heckling, and criticism, and the work prospered and set a pattern of continuous and fast-paced growth. Had not the Lord declared that the field was “white already to harvest”? (D&C 4:4).
Letters from outlying branches published in Church periodicals, the Evening and Morning Star and the Latter-day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate, frequently pleaded for more missionaries. These publications also communicated instructions, decisions of authorities, information about developments throughout the Church, and explanations of gospel doctrines.
Most conferences and meetings, both in Kirtland and in the outlying branches, were devoted to missionary matters. The charge to take the restored gospel to the whole earth received an early impetus in the Kirtland headquarters of the Church. But at the same time the Church was prospering in Ohio, serious problems were developing in Zion between the Saints and their Jackson County, Missouri, neighbors.
Endnotes


1. In Conference Report, Apr. 1898, p. 57; spelling standardized.
2. History of the Church, 1:216.
3. History of the Church, 1:241.
4. In History of the Church, 1:261–64.
5. See History of the Church, 1:265.
6. History of the Church, 1:269; spelling standardized.
7. History of the Church, 1:269.
8. Letter from Joseph Smith to Emma Smith, 6 June 1832, cited in Dean C. Jessee, ed., The Personal Writings of Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1984), p. 238; spelling, punctuation, and capitalization standardized.
9. History of the Church, 1:272.
10. See History of the Church, 1:295.
11. See Brigham Young, “History of Brigham Young,” Millennial Star, 11 July 1863, p. 439.
12. In Lydia Knight’s History (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1883), pp. 10–13, 23, 101.
13. Cited in Jessee, Personal Writings of Joseph Smith, pp. 18–19; spelling, punctuation, and capitalization standardized.
14. See History of the Church, 1:368.
15. Robert J. Matthews, “A Plainer Translation,” Joseph Smith’s Translation of the Bible: A History and Commentary (Provo: Brigham Young University Press, 1975), p. 256; see also pp. 264–65.
16. History of the Church, 1:226; spelling standardized.
17. History of the Church, 1:235.
18. See History of the Church, 2:482–83.
19. This section is derived from Milton V. Backman, Jr., The Heavens Resound: A History of the Latter-day Saints in Ohio, 1830–1838 (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1983), pp. 237–47.
20. In History of the Church, 1:267.
21. In B. H. Roberts, The Missouri Persecutions (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1965), p. 61.
22. In Journal of Discourses, 12:158.
23. History of the Church, 3:304.
24. See Davis Bitton, “Kirtland as a Center of Missionary Activity, 1830–1838,” Brigham Young University Studies, Summer 1971, pp. 499–500.
25. Paragraph derived from James B. Allen and Glen M. Leonard, The Story of the Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1976), p. 73.
26. Mission Journal of Orson Hyde, typescript, 1832, Brigham Young University, Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Provo, pp. 14–15, 31.
27. George A. Smith, “My Journal,” Instructor, Oct. 1946, p. 462.

_________________


Et veillez à avoir la foi, l'espérance et la charité; alors vous abonderez toujours en bonnes oeuvres. En souvenir des Néphites qui présidaient aux cérémonies initiatiques dans la forêt de Zarahemla et qui en fut le secret... DAT ROSA MEL APIBUS
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